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Economies Of Scale And Cost Efficiencies: A Panel-Data Stochastic-Frontier Analysis Of Real Estate Investment Trusts

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  • STEPHEN M. MILLER
  • TERRENCE M. CLAURETIE
  • THOMAS M. SPRINGER

Abstract

This paper extends the existing research on real estate investment trust (REIT) operating efficiencies. We estimate a stochastic-frontier, panel-data model specifying a translog cost function, covering 1995-2003. The results disagree with previous research in that we find little evidence of scale economies and some evidence of scale diseconomies. Moreover, we also generally find smaller inefficiencies than those shown by other REIT studies. Contrary to previous research, the results also show that self-management of a REIT associates with more inefficiency when we measure output with assets. When we use revenue to measure output, self-management associates with more efficiency. Also contrary to previous research, higher leverage associates with more efficiency. The results further suggest that inefficiency increases over time in three of our four specifications. Copyright Blackwell Publishing Ltd and The University of Manchester 2006.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by University of Manchester in its journal Manchester School.

Volume (Year): 74 (2006)
Issue (Month): 4 (07)
Pages: 483-499

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Handle: RePEc:bla:manchs:v:74:y:2006:i:4:p:483-499

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  1. Brent W. Ambrose & Michael J. Highfield & Peter Linneman, . "Economies Of Scale," Zell/Lurie Center Working Papers 358, Wharton School Samuel Zell and Robert Lurie Real Estate Center, University of Pennsylvania.
  2. Jondrow, James & Knox Lovell, C. A. & Materov, Ivan S. & Schmidt, Peter, 1982. "On the estimation of technical inefficiency in the stochastic frontier production function model," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 19(2-3), pages 233-238, August.
  3. Jensen, Michael C, 1986. "Agency Costs of Free Cash Flow, Corporate Finance, and Takeovers," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(2), pages 323-29, May.
  4. Martina Bers & Thomas M. Springer, 1997. "Economies of Scale for Real Estate Investment Trusts," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 14(3), pages 275-290.
  5. Cornwell, Christopher & Schmidt, Peter & Sickles, Robin C., 1990. "Production frontiers with cross-sectional and time-series variation in efficiency levels," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 46(1-2), pages 185-200.
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  8. Allen N. Berger & David B. Humphrey, 1990. "The dominance of inefficiencies over scale and product mix economies in banking," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 107, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  9. Kumbhakar, Subal C., 1990. "Production frontiers, panel data, and time-varying technical inefficiency," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 46(1-2), pages 201-211.
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  11. Battese, G E & Coelli, T J, 1995. "A Model for Technical Inefficiency Effects in a Stochastic Frontier Production Function for Panel Data," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 20(2), pages 325-32.
  12. Noulas, Athanasios G & Ray, Subhash C & Miller, Stephen M, 1990. "Returns to Scale and Input Substitution for Large U.S. Banks," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 22(1), pages 94-108, February.
  13. Greene, William H., 1990. "A Gamma-distributed stochastic frontier model," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 46(1-2), pages 141-163.
  14. Brent W. Ambrose & Michael J. Highfield & Peter D. Linneman, 2005. "Real Estate and Economies of Scale: The Case of REITs," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 33(2), pages 323-350, 06.
  15. Stigler, George J, 1976. "The Xistence of X-Efficiency," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 66(1), pages 213-16, March.
  16. Lawrence, Colin, 1989. "Banking Costs, Generalized Functional Forms, and Estimation of Economies of Scale and Scope," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 21(3), pages 368-79, August.
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  18. Bauer, Paul W., 1990. "Recent developments in the econometric estimation of frontiers," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 46(1-2), pages 39-56.
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Cited by:
  1. Stephen M. Miller & Thomas M. Springer, 2007. "Cost Improvements, Returns to Scale, and Cost Inefficiencies for Real Estate Investment Trusts," Working papers 2007-05, University of Connecticut, Department of Economics.

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