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Taxes, Leverage, and the Cost of Equity Capital

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  • DAN DHALIWAL
  • SHANE HEITZMAN
  • OLIVER ZHEN LI

Abstract

We examine the associations among leverage, corporate and investor level taxes, and the firm's implied cost of equity capital. Expanding on Modigliani and Miller [1958, 1963], the cost of equity capital can be expressed as a function of leverage and corporate and investor level taxes. Based on this expression, we predict that the cost of equity is increasing in leverage, and that corporate taxes mitigate this leverage-related risk premium, while the personal tax disadvantage of debt increases this premium. We empirically test these predictions using implied cost of equity estimates and proxies for the firm's corporate tax rate and the personal tax disadvantage of debt. Our results suggest that the equity risk premium associated with leverage is decreasing in the corporate tax benefit from debt. We find some evidence that the equity risk premium from leverage is increasing in the personal tax penalty associated with debt. Copyright University of Chicago on behalf of the Institute of Professional Accounting, 2006.

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File URL: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1475-679X.2006.00214.x
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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Wiley Blackwell in its journal Journal of Accounting Research.

Volume (Year): 44 (2006)
Issue (Month): 4 (09)
Pages: 691-723

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Handle: RePEc:bla:joares:v:44:y:2006:i:4:p:691-723

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Web page: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=0021-8456

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Cited by:
  1. Muradoğlu, Yaz Gülnur & Sivaprasad, Sheeja, 2012. "Capital structure and abnormal returns," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 21(3), pages 328-341.
  2. Hanlon, Michelle & Heitzman, Shane, 2010. "A review of tax research," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(2-3), pages 127-178, December.
  3. Chongyang Chen & Zhonglan Dai & Douglas A. Shackelford & Harold H. Zhang, 2012. "Does Financial Constraint Affect Shareholder Taxes and the Cost of Equity Capital?," Working Papers 1202, Oxford University Centre for Business Taxation.
  4. Chyz, James A., 2013. "Personally tax aggressive executives and corporate tax sheltering," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(2), pages 311-328.
  5. El Ghoul, Sadok & Guedhami, Omrane & Kwok, Chuck C.Y. & Mishra, Dev R., 2011. "Does corporate social responsibility affect the cost of capital?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(9), pages 2388-2406, September.
  6. Norio Kitagawa & Masatoshi Gotoh, 2011. "Implied Cost of Capital over the Last 20 Years," The Japanese Accounting Review, Research Institute for Economics & Business Administration, Kobe University, vol. 1, pages 71-104, December.
  7. Boubakri, Narjess & Guedhami, Omrane & Mishra, Dev & Saffar, Walid, 2012. "Political connections and the cost of equity capital," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(3), pages 541-559.
  8. Attig, Najah & Guedhami, Omrane & Mishra, Dev, 2008. "Multiple large shareholders, control contests, and implied cost of equity," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 14(5), pages 721-737, December.
  9. Sadok El Ghoul & Omrane Guedhami & Yang Ni & Jeffrey Pittman & Samir Saadi, 2012. "Does Religion Matter to Equity Pricing?," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 111(4), pages 491-518, December.

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