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Strike Three: Discrimination, Incentives, and Evaluation

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  • Christopher A. Parsons
  • Johan Sulaeman
  • Michael C. Yates
  • Daniel S. Hamermesh

Abstract

Major League Baseball umpires express their racial/ethnic preferences when they evaluate pitchers. Strikes are called less often if the umpire and pitcher do not match race/ethnicity, but mainly where there is little scrutiny of umpires. Pitchers understand the incentives and throw pitches that allow umpires less subjective judgment (e.g., fastballs over home plate) when they anticipate bias. These direct and indirect effects bias performance measures of minorities downward. The results suggest how discrimination alters discriminated groups' behavior generally. They imply that biases in measured productivity must be accounted for in generating measures of wage discrimination. (JEL J15, J31, J44, J71, L83)

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by American Economic Association in its journal American Economic Review.

Volume (Year): 101 (2011)
Issue (Month): 4 (June)
Pages: 1410-35

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Handle: RePEc:aea:aecrev:v:101:y:2011:i:4:p:1410-35

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Cited by:
  1. Igan, Deniz & Pinheiro, Marcelo & Smith, John, 2011. ""White men can't jump," but would you bet on it?," MPRA Paper 31469, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  2. Mujcic, Redzo & Frijters, Paul, 2013. "Still Not Allowed on the Bus: It Matters If You're Black or White!," IZA Discussion Papers 7300, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  3. Beck, T.H.L. & Behr, P. & Madestam, A., 2011. "Sex and Credit: Is There a Gender Bias in Microfinance?," Discussion Paper 2011-101, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
  4. Dohmen, Thomas, 2014. "Behavioural Labour Economics: Advances and Future Directions," IZA Discussion Papers 8263, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  5. Jason Abrevaya & Daniel S. Hamermesh, 2010. "Charity and Favoritism in the Field: Are Female Economists Nicer (to Each Other)?," NBER Working Papers 15972, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  6. La, Vincent, 2014. "Home Team Advantage in the NBA: The Effect of Fan Attendance on Performance," MPRA Paper 54579, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  7. Igan, Deniz & Pinheiro, Marcelo & Smith, John, 2012. "Racial biases and market outcomes: "White men can't jump," but would you bet on it?," MPRA Paper 36069, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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