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Soziale Sicherung im Lebenslauf: finanzielle Aspekte in längerfristiger Perspektive am Beispiel der Alterssicherung in Deutschland

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  • Schmähl, Winfried
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    Abstract

    Zunehmende Risiken im Lebenslauf und die Forderung nach vermehrter individueller Flexibilität stellen eine Herausforderung für die adäquate Gestaltung sozialer Sicherung dar, z. B. für die Alterssicherung. In diesem Beitrag wird dargestellt, wie soziale Risiken in öffentlichen und (subventionierten) privaten Alterssicherungssystemen (einschließlich betrieblicher Einrichtungen) berücksichtigt werden. Dies erfolgt am Beispiel der Situation in Deutschland. Ein solcher Vergleich unterschiedlicher Sicherungssysteme wird um so wichtiger, da in vielen Ländern die Rolle des Staates als Produzent sozialer Leistungen reduziert wird. Ausgehend von Zielen und Konzeptionen zur Gestaltung sozialer Sicherung im Alter stehen im Zentrum dieses Beitrags Auswirkungen verschiedener Typen öffentlicher und privater Alterssicherungssysteme auf die Einkommenslage im Alter bei Eintritt bestimmter sozialer Risiken, wie Einkommensverlust durch Arbeitslosigkeit, Krankheit, Pflege von Kindern. Dabei wird der Einsatz unterschiedlicher Instrumente - unter ihnen der von Zeitkonten - betrachtet. Schließlich wird die Verlagerung von Risiken und Verantwortung im Falle zumindest partieller Privatisierung sozialer Sicherung diskutiert - Verlagerungen vom Staat auf private Haushalte, von Arbeitgebern auf Arbeitnehmer. Für den Fall, dass private Sicherungssysteme obligatorisch werden, ist zu erwarten, dass sie mit zu einem Instrument der staatlichen Sozialpolitik werden und manche der sozialen Risiken zu berücksichtigen haben, wie dies bislang in staatlichen Systemen erfolgte. -- Growing insecurity over the life course and an increasing demand for more individual flexibility are a challenge for adequate social security, for example in old age. This paper outlines how ‘social risks’ are taken into account in public as well as (subsidised) private pension schemes (including occupational schemes), such as those in Germany. This becomes more important because in many countries the role of the state as provider of social security benefits is being scaled down. Starting from objectives and concepts for designing social security for old age, the major focus of the paper is the effects of different types of public as well as private pension schemes on income in old age in relation to different social risks, such as loss of income in case of unemployment, illness, caring for children and by using different instruments (among other things, time saving accounts). Finally, the shift of risks and responsibility in the (at least partial) privatisation of social security – from state to private households, from employers to employees – is discussed. If private schemes become mandatory, they may become an instrument of (public) social policy and have to cover some of the social risks that public schemes have in the past.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by University of Bremen, Centre for Social Policy Research (ZeS) in its series Working papers of the ZeS with number 09/2007.

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    Date of creation: 2007
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    Handle: RePEc:zbw:zeswps:092007

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    1. Indermit S. Gill & Truman G. Packard & Juan Yermo, . "Keeping the Promise of Social Security in Latin America," IDB Publications 59998, Inter-American Development Bank.
    2. Luca Benzoni & Pierre Collin-Dufresne & Robert S. Goldstein, 2005. "Portfolio Choice over the Life-Cycle in the Presence of 'Trickle Down' Labor Income," NBER Working Papers 11247, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Martin Feldstein, 2005. "Structural Reform of Social Security," NBER Working Papers 11098, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    4. Indermit S. Gill & Truman Packard & Juan Yermo, 2005. "Keeping the Promise of Social Security in Latin America," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 7391, August.
    5. Holzmann, Robert & Jorgensen, Steen, 1999. "Social protection as social risk management : conceptual underpinnings for the social protection sector strategy paper," Social Protection Discussion Papers 20119, The World Bank.
    6. Feldstein, Martin, 2005. "Structural Reform of Social Security," Scholarly Articles 2794830, Harvard University Department of Economics.
    7. Stiglitz Joseph, 2005. "Securing Social Security for the Future," The Economists' Voice, De Gruyter, vol. 2(1), pages 1-7, February.
    8. Queisser, Monika & Whitehouse, Edward, 2005. "Pensions at a glance: public policies across OECD countries," MPRA Paper 10907, University Library of Munich, Germany.
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