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Arbeit und Beschäftigung in kreativen Industrien: Entwicklungen in der Computerspielindustrie in Deutschland, Schweden und Polen

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  • Teipen, Christina

Abstract

Das vorliegende Paper untersucht die Entwicklung der Computerspielindustrie in Deutschland, Schweden und Polen sowie die Rolle von Arbeits- und Beschäftigungsmodellen für den Erfolg dieser Industrie. Die Computerspielindustrie ist ein schnell wachsender Zweig der „New Economy“, in Deutschland konnte sie sich aber nicht mit internationalem Erfolg entwickeln. Warum bleibt sie in Deutschland so schwach, was erklärt den Erfolg anderer Länder? Hemmen die deutschen Institutionen der Arbeitsregulierung die Entwicklung von „New Economy“- Branchen wie der Computerspielindustrie? In Auseinandersetzung mit Thesen über institutionelle und regulative Barrieren für die Entwicklung der „New Economy“ werden die Spezifika der Computerspielindustrie und ihres Arbeits- und Beschäftigungsmodells herausgearbeitet. Untersucht werden die Flexibilität von Arbeit und Beschäftigung, Anreizsysteme, die Bedeutung von Qualifikationen und Professionalisierung sowie Formen der Interessenvertretung und kollektiver Regulierung in der Branche. Abgeschlossen wird die Analyse durch die Untersuchung der Prozesskettenstruktur, die die Handlungsbedingungen von Unternehmen und ihren Beschäftigten prägt. Es zeigt sich, dass die Flexibilität der Beschäftigung in Unternehmen der Computerspielindustrie in Deutschland, Schweden und Polen sehr hoch ist – von regulativen oder institutionellen Flexibilitätsbarrieren kann nicht die Rede sein. Das Beispiel Schweden demonstriert, dass auch die Existenz einer gewerkschaftlichen Vertretung nicht als ein Flexibilitätshemmnis wirkt. Unerwartete Probleme zeigen sich dagegen an anderen Stellen: Eine mangelnde Professionalisierung und ein – zumindest in Deutschland – kaum existentes Angebot an berufsbildenden Institutionen erschweren die Entwicklung der Unternehmen. Erstaunlich ist dies angesichts der Bedeutung der Berufsbildung in Deutschland. Insgesamt zeigt sich jedoch, dass Arbeits- und Beschäftigungsmodelle für den Erfolg der Unternehmen und die Entwicklung der Branche nicht jene Bedeutung haben wie etwa der Zugang zur Finanzierung des benötigten Investitionsaufwands, um mit den etablierten Marktführern Schritt halten zu können. -- This paper examines the development of the video games industry in Germany, Sweden and Poland as well as the role of work and employment systems for the success of this industry. The video games industry is a fast growing branch of the “New Economy”. While the world market is dominated by American, Japanese, British and French companies, German firms have not succeeded to establish themselves as important players. Why is the industry so weak in Germany? Which factors do explain the success of other countries? Do the German institutions of labor regulation hamper the development of “New Economy” industries like the video games industry? The paper discusses the specifics of the video games industry as a “creative industry” and its work and employment model. It examines the development of the value chain structure and its consequences for risk distribution among companies. It analyzes the work and employment models resulting from the particular market conditions and the industry structure: the flexibility of work and employment, the incentive systems, the importance of skills and professionalization as well as forms of interest representation and collective bargaining in the industry. Our results show that employment flexibility in the video games industry is very high in Germany, Sweden and Poland – regulative or institutional constraints on flexibility do not play an important role. The example of Sweden demonstrates that even union representatives are no obstacle to flexibility. Problems, however, appear at some other point: The lack of professionalization and – at least in Germany – a missing supply of vocational institutions hamper the development of firms. This is remarkable in view of the importance of vocational education in Germany. Altogether, the analysis shows that the poor performance of the video games industry in Germany, Poland and, to a lesser extent, in Sweden cannot be explained by the weakness of the work and employment models. Other factors like the access to financial resources seem to play a more important role and explain the difficulties of German firms to keep pace with established market leaders.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Social Science Research Center Berlin (WZB) in its series Discussion Papers, Research Unit: Knowledge, Production Systems and Work with number SP III 2006-301.

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Date of creation: 2006
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Handle: RePEc:zbw:wzbkpw:spiii2006301

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Cited by:
  1. Bruno AMABLE (Université Paris I and CEPREMAP) & Yannick LUNG (GREThA UMR CNRS 5113 and GERPISA), 2008. "The European Socio-Economic Models of a Knowledge-based society. \r\nMain findings and conclusion \r\n," Cahiers du GREThA 2008-26, Groupe de Recherche en Economie Théorique et Appliquée.
  2. Jürgens, Ulrich & Krzywdzinski, Martin & Teipen, Christina, 2006. "Changing work and employment relations in German industries: Breaking away from the German model?," Discussion Papers, Research Unit: Knowledge, Production Systems and Work SP III 2006-302, Social Science Research Center Berlin (WZB).

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