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Ökonomisierungstrends im Dritten Sektor: Verbreitung und Auswirkungen von Wettbewerb und finanzieller Planungsunsicherheit in gemeinnützigen Organisationen

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  • Droß, Patrick J.
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    Abstract

    Vereine, gemeinnützige GmbHs, Genossenschaften und Stiftungen bilden die wichtigsten Organisationsformen des Dritten Sektors in Deutschland. Sie gelten traditionell als multifunktionale Organisationen, deren Kurs ein steter Balanceakt zwischen sozialer, zivilgesellschaftlicher und ökonomischer Logik ist. Die Rahmenbedingungen für die Arbeit der Organisationen haben sich in den letzten beiden Jahrzenten jedoch gravierend verändert. Die Einführung marktförmiger Anreize und veränderter Finanzierungsmodalitäten erzeugte einen erheblichen Wettbewerbs- und Rationalisierungsdruck. Gleichzeitig treten vermehrt neue Akteure auf den Plan, die von sich aus stärker auf unternehmerische Lösungen für soziale und ökologische Probleme setzen. Diese Veränderungsprozesse werden innerhalb der Dritte-Sektor-Forschung bereits seit längerem als ein Prozess zunehmender Ökonomisierung beschrieben. Betriebswirtschaftliche Denk- und Handlungsweisen gewinnen dabei in den Organisationen an Bedeutung. Aktuelle Auswertungen der Erhebung Organisationen heute 2011/2012 liefern nun erstmals rechtsformspezifische repräsentative Ergebnisse zu diesen Ökonomisierungstrends. So können im vorliegenden Paper einerseits Unterschiede hinsichtlich der Verbreitung von Konkurrenzdruck und finanzieller Unsicherheit im heterogenen Feld des Dritten Sektors nachgezeichnet werden. Andererseits werden Auswirkungen unterschiedlicher Ökonomisierungsniveaus hinsichtlich Struktur, Arbeitsweise, Beschäftigungssituation und Selbstverständnis der Organisationen überprüft. Festhalten lässt sich, dass Wettbewerb und finanzielle Planungsunsicherheit einen wachsenden Teil des Sektors erfassen. Die Organisationen werden dabei zunehmend zu Akteuren auf regulierten Quasi-Märkten und konkurrieren um finanzielle Ressourcen sowie Klient_innen bzw. Nutzer_innen. Dennoch bleiben sie bislang in ihren Zielstellungen gemeinwohlorientierten, zivilgesellschaftlichen Leitlinien verpflichtet. -- Associations, nonprofit enterprises, cooperatives and foundations are the basic organizational forms within the German third sector. Traditionally considered multifunctional organizations, until recently third sector organizations' main societal functions were social integration, advocacy and social service provision. However, due to a changing regulatory framework, the conditions under which the organizations work have significantly changed within the last two decades. The implementation of market mechanisms and new financing modes put a competitive and rationalizing pressure on the organizations. At the same time, new organizations appeared on the scene, which on their own initiative strive for entrepreneurial solutions for social and ecological problems. These transformations have already been described in third-sector-research as a growing marketization of nonprofit organizations. Analyzing data from the organizational survey Organizations today 2011/2012, this paper offers empirical insights on this marketization trend, which also includes variations by organizational forms. On the one hand, differences regarding the distribution of the pressure from competition and financial insecurity within the heterogeneous field of the third sector are presented. On the other hand, possible impacts on the organizational structures, the modes of operation, the employment situation and the self-image of the organizations are studied. In summary, this paper shows that in the processes of marketization third sector organizations are increasingly becoming actors within regulated quasi-markets. Thus, they are competing for financial resources and clients and are becoming subject to managerial business practices. Nevertheless in their objectives they still remain oriented towards the common goods and civil society values.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Social Science Research Center Berlin (WZB) in its series Discussion Papers, Project Group Civic Engagement with number SP V 2013-301.

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    Date of creation: 2013
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    Handle: RePEc:zbw:wzbcen:spv2013301

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    Keywords: Ökonomisierung; Dritter Sektor; Wettbewerb; multifunktionale Organisationen; organisationaler Wandel;

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