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Das "PISA Phänomen": Ein Plädoyer für einen interdisziplinären Ansatz zur Erforschung von Bildungsproduktion im Kontext von Large-Scale-Assessments

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  • Martens, Kerstin
  • Breiter, Andreas
  • Idel, Till-Sebastian
  • Knipping, Christine
  • Teltemann, Janna
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    Abstract

    International vergleichende Schulleistungsuntersuchungen wie das Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) der Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) oder die Internationale Grundschul-Leseuntersuchung (IGLU; englisch: Progress in International Reading Literacy Study/PIRLS) zeigen Schwächen und Stärken der Bildungssysteme teilnehmender Länder auf. Sie zielen darauf ab, die Produktionsleistung von Bildungssystemen messbar zu machen, und erlauben es, Bildungsansätze verschiedener Länder und Regionen bis auf die Ebene einzelner Schulen hinsichtlich ihrer Leistungskapazitäten zu quantifizieren und miteinander zu vergleichen. In diesem Beitrag argumentieren wir für eine interdisziplinäre Perspektive auf den Prozess der Bildungsproduktion nach bzw. durch PISA und ähnliche Studien, um die Existenz von Konvergenzprozessen im Bildungsbereich und eventuelle Wechselwirkungen zu analysieren. Wie wir zeigen werden, untersuchen die einzelnen Fachdisziplinen aufgrund ihrer disziplinär verankerten Fragestellungen und Foki jeweils für sich unterschiedliche Aspekte des Forschungsgegenstandes. Nach nunmehr gut zehn Jahren mit einer weitestgehend disziplinären Beschäftigung mit PISA und ihren Folgen ist es notwendig, sich auf einer übergreifenden Ebene mit den Veränderungen in der Organisation und Produktion von Bildung nach und durch PISA zu befassen. Eine solche Meta-Perspektive auf den Wandel verspricht besonders erkenntnisfördernd zu sein, wenn sie interdisziplinär verschiedene sozialwissenschaftliche Perspektiven und Zugänge integriert. Gerade auf diese Weise lassen sich Zusammenhänge und Wechselwirkungen von Prozessen im Bildungsbereich rekonstruieren, die Konvergenzen befördern. Infolgedessen vermittelt ein interdisziplinärer Forschungsansatz ein umfassenderes und genaueres Bild der Folgen internationaler Schulleistungsstudien, als es aus einer isolierten Fachperspektive möglich wäre. -- International comparative studies of student achievement like the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) or the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) demonstrate the strengths and weaknesses of participating countries' education systems. These comparative studies aim to create a measurement for the performance of education systems. Thus, they allow for the quantification and comparison of educational approaches in different countries, regions and types of schools or even individual schools. The present contribution argues for an interdisciplinary perspective on changes of education production induced by PISA and similar studies in order to analyze convergence processes and potential interdependencies in the educational sector. As will be shown, the particular disciplines will, due to their specialized foci, study the various aspects of the research topic in question. After having dealt with PISA and its ramifications for about ten years primarily from a single disciplinary viewpoint it has become necessary to conduct research on a more comprehensive level. Thus an interdisciplinary approach in studying PISA induced changes in education organization and production is essential. If different social-scientific perspectives are integrated, such meta-perspective on the transition processes promises to produce enhanced and deepened knowledge in the relevant research topic. This particular approach helps to reconstruct nexuses and interdependencies of processes fostering convergences in the educational field. Consequently an interdisciplinary assessment can uncover the impact of international comparative school performance studies in the field of education more comprehensively than an isolated disciplinary perspective.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by University of Bremen, Collaborative Research Center 597: Transformations of the State in its series TranState Working Papers with number 175.

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    Date of creation: 2013
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    Handle: RePEc:zbw:sfb597:175

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    1. Schlicht-Schmälzle, Raphaela & Teltemann, Janna & Windzio, Michael, 2011. "Deregulation of education: What does it mean for efficiency and equality?," TranState Working Papers 157, University of Bremen, Collaborative Research Center 597: Transformations of the State.
    2. Simon Breakspear, 2012. "The Policy Impact of PISA: An Exploration of the Normative Effects of International Benchmarking in School System Performance," OECD Education Working Papers 71, OECD Publishing.
    3. Finnemore, Martha, 1993. "International organizations as teachers of norms: the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cutural Organization and science policy," International Organization, Cambridge University Press, vol. 47(04), pages 565-597, September.
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