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Foucault, Gouvernementalität und Staatstheorie

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  • Biebricher, Thomas
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    Abstract

    Im Mittelpunkt des vorliegenden Working Papers steht eine Gegenüberstellung der durch Michel Foucault sowie die an ihn anschließenden Governmentality Studies geprägten Gouvernementalitätsperspektive auf den Staat mit den etablierten Herangehensweisen in der Staatstheorie. Zu diesem Zweck werden in einem ersten Schritt die werkimmanenten theoretischen Verschiebungen rekonstruiert, die den Staat seit Ende der 1970er Jahre erstmals explizit zum Gegenstand von Foucaults Denkens werden lassen und die sich mit der Formel 'Von Disziplin zu Regierung' zusammenfassen lassen. In einem zweiten Schritt wird die Entstehung der Forschungstradition der Governmentality Studies nachgezeichnet um zu klären, warum sich hier erst in jüngster Zeit eine Debatte um die genuin staatstheoretischen Aspekte der Gouvernementalitätsperspektive abzeichnet. Das theoretisch-analytische Begriffsinstrumentarium dieser Perspektive auf den Staat bildet dann den Gegenstand des folgenden Abschnitts. Im daran anschließenden zentralen Kapitel werden nun die verschiedenen Aspekte der Foucaultschen Perspektive unter anderem mit neo-marxistischen und neo-institutionalistischen Theorien des Staates konfrontiert, um herauszuarbeiten, inwieweit Foucaults Staatsanalytik originelle Elemente und Überlegungen enthält, die nicht schon in einer anderen Tradition zu finden sind. Diese Gegenüberstellung verfolgt jedoch keine polemischen Ziele, sondern ist vielmehr daran interessiert, eine Debatte zwischen den Governmentality Studies und den etablierten Herangehensweisen in der Staatstheorie zu initiieren, der bis jetzt von beiden Seiten und letztlich auch zu beiderseitigem Nachteil aus dem Weg gegangen wurde. Die Studie endet mit der Einschätzung, dass die Gouvernementalitätsperspektive noch weiterer argumentativer Unterfütterung zur Stützung ihres Anspruchs auf eine eigenständige und innovative Herangehensweise an die staatstheoretische Problematik bedarf. -- The argumenative core of this Working Paper is a juxtaposition of the governmentality perspective as it is developed by Michel Foucault and the Governmentality Studies on the one hand and the more established frameworks of state theory on the other. The paper begins with an examination of the various shifts (from discipline to government) in Foucault's work that enable him to make the state an explicit focus of his work for the first time at the end of the 1970. The second step investigates the emergence of the so-called Governmentality Studies in order to find out why it is only very recently that the genuinely state-theoretical content of the governmentality lectures has become the subject of debate. The following section offers an outline of the basic premises and the conceptual vocabulary of the governmentality perspective on the state. Based on these preparatory steps, the core section of the paper then compares the various aspects of the governmentality perspective to alternative approaches from Neo-Institutionalism to Neo-Marxism, in order to identify what might be unique and original about the governmentality perspective. The juxtaposition has no polemical purposes; rather the aim of this comparative examination is to initiate a debate between Foucaultians and proponents of other more established state-theoretical frameworks about strengths and limits of the respective approaches. Both sides have foregone this opportunity so far - to the detriment of both. The study concludes that its many merits notwithstanding, the governmentality perspective still is in need of further elaboration in order to redeem its claim to an original and innovative view on the state-theoretical problematic.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by University of Bremen, Collaborative Research Center 597: Transformations of the State in its series TranState Working Papers with number 164.

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    Date of creation: 2012
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    Handle: RePEc:zbw:sfb597:164

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