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Information production in credit relationship: On the role of internal ratings in commercial banking

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  • Brunner, Antje
  • Pieter, Jan
  • Weber, Martin
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    Abstract

    This paper discusses the role of internal corporate ratings as a means by which commercial banks condense their informational advantage and preserve it vis-à-vis a competitive lending market. In drawing on a unique data set collected from leading universal banks in Germany, we are able to evaluate the extent to which non-public information determines corporate ratings. As a point of departure, the paper describes a sample of rating systems currently in use, and points at methodological differences between them. Relying on a probit analysis, we are able to show that the set of qualitative, or soft, factors is not simply redundant with respect to publicly available accounting data. Rather, qualitative information tends to be decisive in at least one third of cases. It tends to improve the firms’ overall corporate rating. In the case of conflicting rating changes, i.e. when qualitative and quantitative rating changes have opposing signs, quantitative criteria dominate the overall rating change. Furthermore, the more restrictive the weighting scheme as part of the rating methodology is, the stronger is the impact of qualitative information on the firms’ overall rating. The implications of our results underline the need to define stringent rating standards, from both a risk management and a regulatory point of view. --

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Center for Financial Studies (CFS) in its series CFS Working Paper Series with number 2000/10.

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    Date of creation: 2000
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    Handle: RePEc:zbw:cfswop:200010

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    Related research

    Keywords: Corporate rating; long-term lending; financial intermediation; information aggregation; credit risk management;

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    References

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    1. Gorton, Gary, 1994. "Bank Regulation When 'Banks' and 'Banking' Are Not the Same," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 10(4), pages 106-19, Winter.
    2. Greenbaum, Stuart I. & Kanatas, George & Venezia, Itzhak, 1989. "Equilibrium loan pricing under the bank-client relationship," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 221-235, May.
    3. Elsas, Ralf & Krahnen, Jan Pieter, 1998. "Is relationship lending special? Evidence from credit-file data in Germany," CFS Working Paper Series 1998/05, Center for Financial Studies (CFS).
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    8. Krahnen, Jan Pieter & Weber, Martin, 2000. "Generally accepted rating principles: A primer," CFS Working Paper Series 2000/02, Center for Financial Studies (CFS).
    9. Schmidt, Reinhard H. & Hackethal, Andreas & Tyrell, Marcel, 1999. "Disintermediation and the Role of Banks in Europe: An International Comparison," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 8(1-2), pages 36-67, January.
    10. Sharpe, Steven A, 1990. " Asymmetric Information, Bank Lending, and Implicit Contracts: A Stylized Model of Customer Relationships," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 45(4), pages 1069-87, September.
    11. Marshall E. Blume & Felix Lim & A. Craig MacKinlay, . "The Declining Credit Quality of US Corporate Debt: Myth or Reality?," Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research Working Papers 03-98, Wharton School Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research.
    12. Marshall E. Blume & Felix Lim & A. Craig Mackinlay, 1998. "The Declining Credit Quality of U.S. Corporate Debt: Myth or Reality?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 53(4), pages 1389-1413, 08.
    13. Machauer, Achim & Weber, Martin, 1998. "Bank behavior based on internal credit ratings of borrowers," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(10-11), pages 1355-1383, October.
    14. Edward I. Altman & Anthony Saunders, 1996. "Credit Risk Measurement: Developments over the Last 20 Years," New York University, Leonard N. Stern School Finance Department Working Paper Seires 96-3, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business-.
    15. Broecker, Thorsten, 1990. "Credit-Worthiness Tests and Interbank Competition," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 58(2), pages 429-52, March.
    16. Machauer, Achim & Weber, Martin, 1998. "Bank behavior based on internal credit ratings of borrowers," CFS Working Paper Series 1998/08, Center for Financial Studies (CFS).
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    Citations

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    Cited by:
    1. Roman Inderst & Holger M. Mueller, 2006. "Informed Lending and Security Design," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 61(5), pages 2137-2162, October.
    2. Inderst, Roman & Mueller, Holger M, 2006. "A Lender-Based Theory of Collateral," CEPR Discussion Papers 5695, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    3. Brunner, Antje & Krahnen, Jan Pieter, 2006. "Multiple lenders and corporate distress: Evidence on debt restructuring," CFS Working Paper Series 2001/04, Center for Financial Studies (CFS).
    4. Simon Cornée, 2012. "The Relevance of Soft Information for Predicting Small Business Credit Default: Evidence from a Social Bank," Economics Working Paper Archive (University of Rennes 1 & University of Caen) 201226, Center for Research in Economics and Management (CREM), University of Rennes 1, University of Caen and CNRS.
    5. Liebig, Thilo & Porath, Daniel & di Mauro, Beatrice Weder & Wedow, Michael, 2004. "How will Basel II affect bank lending to emerging markets? An analysis based on German bank level data," Discussion Paper Series 2: Banking and Financial Studies 2004,05, Deutsche Bundesbank, Research Centre.
    6. Degryse, H.A. & Ongena, S., 2003. "Distance, Lending Relationships, and Competition," Discussion Paper 2003-123, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
    7. Jose Maria Liberti, 2004. "Initiative, Incentives and Soft Information. How Does Delegation Impact The Role of Bank Relationship Managers?," Finance 0404023, EconWPA.
    8. Krahnen, Jan Pieter, 2000. "Collateral, Default Risk, and Relationship Lending: An Empirical Study on Financial Contracting," CEPR Discussion Papers 2540, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    9. Van Laere, Elisabeth & Baesens, Bart, 2010. "The development of a simple and intuitive rating system under Solvency II," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(3), pages 500-510, June.
    10. Liebig, Thilo & Porath, Daniel & Weder, Beatrice & Wedow, Michael, 2007. "Basel II and bank lending to emerging markets: Evidence from the German banking sector," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(2), pages 401-418, February.
    11. Rym Ayadi & Beat Bernet & Simone Westerfeld & Tom Franck & Nancy Huyghebaert & Vítor Gaspar & Simona Bovha-Padilla & Reinhilde Veugelers, 2009. "Financing of SMEs in Europe," Chapters in SUERF Studies, SUERF - The European Money and Finance Forum.
    12. Nataliya Fedorenko & Dorothea Schäfer & Oleksandr Talavera, 2007. "The Effects of the Bank-Internal Ratings on the Loan Maturity," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 704, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
    13. Guido Fioretti, 2005. "Credit Rationing and Internal Ratings in the face of Innovation and Uncertainty," Finance 0504021, EconWPA.
    14. Liebig, Thilo & Porath, Daniel & Weder di Mauro, Beatrice & Wedow, Michael, 2005. "Basel II and Bank Lending to Emerging Markets: Micro Evidence from German Banks," CEPR Discussion Papers 5163, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    15. Grunert, Jens & Norden, Lars & Weber, Martin, 2005. "The role of non-financial factors in internal credit ratings," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 509-531, February.
    16. Grunert, Jens & Norden, Lars & Weber, Martin, 2002. "The Role of Non-financial Factors in Internal Credit Ratings," CEPR Discussion Papers 3415, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.

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