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The Choice of Market Entry Mode: Greenfield Investment, M&A and Joint Venture

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  • Stähler, Frank
  • Ryan, Michael
  • Raff, Horst

Abstract

Multinationals may enter a host market by different modes of foreign direct investment (FDI). This paper examines the choice of FDI mode, and shows that the profitability of greenfield investment influences this choice not only directly, but also indirectly since it determines the outside option of potential acquisition targets and joint venture partners. In particular, even if greenfield investment is a viable option, the multinational may prefer a joint venture to M&A, and M&A to greenfield investment, provided that M&A and joint venture both involve sufficiently low fixed costs. The reason is that the profitability of greenfield investment both reduces the acquisition price in the case of M&A, and gives local firms an incentive to agree to a joint venture. --

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, Department of Economics in its series Economics Working Papers with number 2007,19.

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Date of creation: 2007
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Handle: RePEc:zbw:cauewp:5685

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Keywords: Foreign direct investment; multinational firms; merger and acquisition; joint venture; greenfield investment;

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References

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  1. Elhanan Helpman & Marc J. Melitz & Stephen R. Yeaple, 2004. "Export Versus FDI with Heterogeneous Firms," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 94(1), pages 300-316, March.
  2. Markusen, James R., 2002. "Multinational Firms and the Theory of International Trade," MPRA Paper 8380, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  3. Bruce A. Blonigen & Ronald B. Davies & Keith Head, 2002. "Estimating the Knowledge-Capital Model of the Multinational Enterprise: Comment," NBER Working Papers 8929, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. David L. Carr & James R. Markusen & Keith E. Maskus, 2001. "Estimating the Knowledge-Capital Model of the Multinational Enterprise," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 91(3), pages 693-708, June.
  5. Horst Raff & Michael Ryan & Frank Stähler, 2006. "Asset Ownership and Foreign-Market Entry," CESifo Working Paper Series 1676, CESifo Group Munich.
  6. Nocke, Volker & Yeaple, Stephen, 2007. "Cross-border mergers and acquisitions vs. greenfield foreign direct investment: The role of firm heterogeneity," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 72(2), pages 336-365, July.
  7. Horn, Henrik & Persson, Lars, 1999. "The Equilibrium Ownership of an International Oligopoly," Working Paper Series 515, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
  8. d'Aspremont, Claude & Jacquemin, Alexis, 1988. "Cooperative and Noncooperative R&D in Duopoly with Spillovers," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 78(5), pages 1133-37, December.
  9. Bjorvatn, Kjetil, 2004. "Economic integration and the profitability of cross-border mergers and acquisitions," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 48(6), pages 1211-1226, December.
  10. Keith Head & John Ries, 2003. "Heterogeneity and the FDI versus Export Decision of Japanese Manufacturers," NBER Working Papers 10052, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Jean J. GABSZEWICZ & Didier, LAUSSEL & Ornella, TAROLLA, 2008. "To acquire or to compete ? An entry dilemna," Discussion Papers (ECON - Département des Sciences Economiques) 2008019, Université catholique de Louvain, Département des Sciences Economiques.
  2. Marlene Grande & Aurora A. C. Teixeira, 2011. "Linking entry mode choices of MNCs with countries’ corruption. A review," OBEGEF Working Papers 008, OBEGEF - Observatório de Economia e Gestão de Fraude & OBEGEF Working Papers on Fraud and Corruption.
  3. repec:tep:teppwp:wp12-06 is not listed on IDEAS
  4. Beladi, Hamid & Chakrabarti, Avik & Marjit, Sugata, 2010. "Cross-border merger, vertical structure, and spatial competition," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 109(2), pages 112-114, November.
  5. Quan Hoang Vuong & Tran Tri Dung & Thi Chau Ha NguyenN, 2009. "Mergers and Acquisitions in Vietnam’s Emerging Market Economy, 1990-2009," Working Papers CEB 09-045.RS, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  6. Co, Catherine Yap, 2010. "Intra- and inter-firm US trade," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 260-277, April.
  7. Kjell Erik Lommerud & Frode Meland & Odd Rune Straume, 2008. "Mergers and capital flight in unionised oligopolies: Is there scope for a 'national champion' policy?," NIPE Working Papers 10/2008, NIPE - Universidade do Minho.
  8. Kai Zhao, 2011. "Entry mode choice and target firm selection: private and collective incentive analysis," Working Papers halshs-00856139, HAL.
  9. Beladi, Hamid & Chakrabarti, Avik & Marjit, Sugata, 2010. "Sequential spatial competition in vertically related industries with different product varieties," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 106(2), pages 112-114, February.
  10. Giannetti, Caterina & Jentzsch, Nicola & Spagnolo, Giancarlo, 2010. "Information Sharing and Cross-Border Entry in European Banking," ECRI Papers 2990, Centre for European Policy Studies.
  11. Beladi, Hamid & Chakrabarti, Avik & Marjit, Sugata, 2014. "A public firm in a model of spatial duopoly with price discrimination," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 123(1), pages 79-81.
  12. Federico J. Díez & Alan C. Spearot, 2011. "Core competencies and the structure of foreign direct investment," Working Papers 11-13, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
  13. Federico J. Díez & Alan C. Spearot, 2012. "Core competencies, matching, and the structure of foreign direct investment: an update," Working Papers 12-8, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
  14. repec:tep:teppwp:wp1206 is not listed on IDEAS
  15. Shafik Hebous & Martin Ruf & Alfons Weichenrieder, 2010. "The Effects of Taxation on the Location Decision of Multinational Firms: M&A vs. Greenfield Investments," CESifo Working Paper Series 3076, CESifo Group Munich.

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