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On the Origin of Species by Sympatric Speciation

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  • U. Dieckmann
  • M. Doebeli
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    Abstract

    Understanding speciation is a fundamental biological problem. It is believed that many species originated through allopatric divergence in geographically isolated populations of the same ancestral species (1-3). In contrast, the possibility of sympatric speciation has often been dismissed, partly because of theoretical difficulties (2,3). Most previous models analyzing sympatric speciation concentrated on particular aspects of the problem while neglecting others (4-10). We present a model which integrates a novel combination of different features and shows that sympatric speciation is a likely outcome of competition for resources. We use explicit multilocus genetics to describe sexual reproduction in an individual-based model, and we consider the evolution of assortative mating depending either on the ecological character affecting intraspecific resource competition or on a selectively neutral marker trait. In both cases, evolution of assortative mating often leads to reproductive isolation between ecologically diverging subpopulations. When assortative mating depends on a marker trait, and is therefore not directly linked to resource competition, speciation occurs when genetic drift breaks the lineage equilibrium between marker and ecological trait. Our theory conforms well with mounting empirical evidence for the sympatric origin of many species (10-18).

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    File URL: http://www.iiasa.ac.at/Publications/Documents/IR-99-013.pdf
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    File URL: http://www.iiasa.ac.at/Publications/Documents/IR-99-013.ps
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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis in its series Working Papers with number ir99013.

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    Date of creation: Jul 1999
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    Handle: RePEc:wop:iasawp:ir99013

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    1. U. Dieckmann & R. Law, 1996. "The Dynamical Theory of Coevolution: A Derivation from Stochastic Ecological Processes," Working Papers wp96001, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis.
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    Cited by:
    1. Åke Brännström & Jacob Johansson & Niels von Festenberg, 2013. "The Hitchhiker’s Guide to Adaptive Dynamics," Games, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 4(3), pages 304-328, June.
    2. Bhattacharyay, A. & Drossel, B., 2005. "Modeling coevolution and sympatric speciation of flowers and pollinators," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 345(1), pages 159-172.
    3. Cook, James N. & Oono, Y., 2010. "Competitive localization," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 389(9), pages 1849-1860.
    4. E. Kisdi & F.J.A. Jacobs & S.A.H. Geritz, 2000. "Red Queen Evolution by Cycles of Evolutionary Branching and Extinction," Working Papers ir00030, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis.
    5. E. Kisdi & S.A.H. Geritz, 1999. "Evolutionary Branching and Sympatric Speciation in Diploid Populations," Working Papers ir99048, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis.
    6. Champagnat, Nicolas, 2006. "A microscopic interpretation for adaptive dynamics trait substitution sequence models," Stochastic Processes and their Applications, Elsevier, vol. 116(8), pages 1127-1160, August.

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