Economic Transition and the Motherhood Wage Penalty in Urban China: Investigation using Panel Data
AbstractChina’s economic transition has fundamentally changed the mechanisms for allocating and compensating labor. This paper investigates how the economic transition has affected the wage gap between mothers and childless women in urban China using panel data for the period 1990-2005. The results show that overall, mothers earned considerably less than childless women; additionally, the wage penalties for motherhood went up substantially from the gradualist reform period (1990-1996) to the radical reform period (1999-2005). The results also show that that although motherhood does not appear to have a significant wage effect for the state sector, it imposes substantial wage losses for mothers in the non-state sector. These findings suggest that the economic transition has shifted part of the cost of child-bearing and -rearing from the state and employers back to women in the form of lower earnings for working mothers.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by The University of Winnipeg, Department of Economics in its series Departmental Working Papers with number 2011-02.
Length: 39 pages
Date of creation: Jan 2011
Date of revision:
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Other versions of this item:
- Nan Jia & Xiao-Yuan Dong, 2013. "Economic transition and the motherhood wage penalty in urban China: investigation using panel data," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 37(4), pages 819-843.
- J13 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
- J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials
- O10 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - General
- R20 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Household Analysis - - - General
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2011-03-26 (All new papers)
- NEP-HME-2011-03-26 (Heterodox Microeconomics)
- NEP-LAB-2011-03-26 (Labour Economics)
- NEP-TRA-2011-03-26 (Transition Economics)
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