Poverty, living conditions, and infrastructure access : a comparison of slums in Dakar, Johannesburg, and Nairobi
AbstractIn this paper the authors compare indicators of development, infrastructure, and living conditions in the slums of Dakar, Nairobi, and Johannesburg using data from 2004 World Bank surveys. Contrary to the notion that most African cities face similar slum problems, find that slums in the three cities differ dramatically from each other on nearly every indicator examined. Particularly striking is the weak correlation of measures of income and human capital with infrastructure access and quality of living conditions. For example, residents of Dakar’s slums have low levels of education and high levels of poverty but fairly decent living conditions. By contrast, most of Nairobi’s slum residents have jobs and comparatively high levels of education, but living conditions are but extremely bad . And in Johannesburg, education and unemployment levels are high, but living conditions are not as bad as in Nairobi. These findings suggest that reduction in income poverty and improvements in human development do not automatically translate into improved infrastructure access or living conditions. Since not all slum residents are poor, living conditions also vary within slums depending on poverty status. Compared to their non-poor neighbors, the poorest residents of Nairobi or Dakar are less likely to use water (although connection rates are similar) or have access to basic infrastructure (such as electricity or a mobile phone). Neighborhood location is also a powerful explanatory variable for electricity and water connections, even after controlling for household characteristics and poverty. Finally, tenants are less likely than homeowners to have water and electricity connections.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 5388.
Date of creation: 01 Jul 2010
Date of revision:
Housing&Human Habitats; Transport Economics Policy&Planning; Urban Slums Upgrading; Urban Services to the Poor; Town Water Supply and Sanitation;
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-AFR-2010-08-06 (Africa)
- NEP-ALL-2010-08-06 (All new papers)
- NEP-DEV-2010-08-06 (Development)
- NEP-URE-2010-08-06 (Urban & Real Estate Economics)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Vivien Foster & Maria Caridad Araujo, 2004. "Does infrastructure reform work for the poor? A case study from Guatemala," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3185, The World Bank.
- Jimenez-Redal, Ruben & Parker, Alison & Jeffrey, Paul, 2014. "Factors influencing the uptake of household water connections in peri-urban Maputo, Mozambique," Utilities Policy, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 28(C), pages 22-27.
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