Advanced Search
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

The mechanics of progress in education : evidence from cross-country data

Contents:

Author Info

  • Mingat, Alain
  • Jee-Peng Tan
Registered author(s):

    Abstract

    The authors explore differences in education in rich and poor countries by first systematically documenting the relationship between per capita GNP and various indicators of educational development. They then exploit a simple accounting identity relating the availability of resources to their expenditure, to clarify the sources of rich countries'advantage in education. Data for a sample for 125 countries in 1993 confirm the expected favorable relationship between per capita GNP and each of the following dimensions of educational development: a) The sector context (as reflected by the demographic burden on the education system, the government's fiscal capacity, and so on). b) The production of education services, including such factors as public spending on education and the composition of spending. c)Education outcomes, in terms of coverage and student learning. d) Efficiency of sector operations. e) Equity in access and distribution of public spending on education. One appealing explanation for why richer countries achieve better results is that they have more resources for their education systems. But bigger budget allocations to education contribute relatively little to differences in resources. Lighter demographic burdens in richer countries is also a relatively modest factor. By far the most important factor is the decline of teacher salaries relative to per capita GNP, which accounts for at least half of any educational advantage at all stages of economic development. The extra resources for education associated with income growth allows a country to expand enrollments and improve classroom conditions by reducing the pupil-teacher ratio. Early in income growth, countries allocate more of the extra resources to expand coverage; later they shift toward reducing the pupil-teacher ratio. But, contend the authors, so long as coverage is not yet universal a more efficient strategy for educational development is to emphasize continued expansion of coverage rather than a rapid reduction in the pupil-teacher ratio. In the long run, lower levels of educational attainment among tomorrow's adults is likely to diminish learning achievement among tomorrow's children.

    Download Info

    If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
    File URL: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2000/02/24/000094946_99031911105738/Rendered/PDF/multi_page.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 2015.

    as in new window
    Length:
    Date of creation: 30 Nov 1998
    Date of revision:
    Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:2015

    Contact details of provider:
    Postal: 1818 H Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20433
    Phone: (202) 477-1234
    Email:
    Web page: http://www.worldbank.org/
    More information through EDIRC

    Related research

    Keywords: Teaching and Learning; Curriculum&Instruction; Public Health Promotion; Public Sector Economics&Finance; Decentralization; Gender and Education; Primary Education; Health Monitoring&Evaluation; Teaching and Learning; Curriculum&Instruction;

    References

    No references listed on IDEAS
    You can help add them by filling out this form.

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as in new window

    Cited by:
    1. Roland Craigwell & Danielle Bynoe & Shane Lowe, 2012. "The effectiveness of government expenditure on education and health care in the Caribbean," International Journal of Development Issues, Emerald Group Publishing, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 11(1), pages 4-18, April.
    2. Rodney Ramcharan, 2002. "Columbia or High School? Understanding the Roles of Education in Development," IMF Working Papers 02/36, International Monetary Fund.
    3. Gupta, Sanjeev & Verhoeven, Marijn, 2001. "The efficiency of government expenditure: experiences from Africa," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 23(4), pages 433-467, May.

    Lists

    This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:2015. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Roula I. Yazigi).

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

    If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.