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Understanding the Implied Volatility Surface for Options on a Diversified Index

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Abstract

This paper describes a two-factor model for a diversifed index that attempts to explain both the leverage effect and the implied volatility skews that are characteristic of index options. Our formulation is based on an analysis of the growth optimal portfolio and a corresponding random market activity time where the discounted growth optimal portfolio is expressed as a time transformed squared Bessel process of dimension four. It turns out that for this index model an equivalent risk neutral martingale measure does not exist because the corresponding Radon-Nikodym derivative process is a strict local martingale. However, a consistent pricing and hedging framework is established by using the benchmark approach. The proposed model,which includes a random initial condition for market activity, generates implied volatility surfaces for European call and put options that are typically observed in real markets. The paper also examines the price differences of binary options for the proposed model and their Black-Scholes counterparts.

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File URL: http://www.business.uts.edu.au/qfrc/research/research_papers/rp128.pdf
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Quantitative Finance Research Centre, University of Technology, Sydney in its series Research Paper Series with number 128.

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Length: 23
Date of creation: 01 Jun 2004
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:uts:rpaper:128

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Keywords: index derivatives; minimal market model; random scaling; growth optimal portfolio; fair pricing; binary options;

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  1. Das, Sanjiv Ranjan & Sundaram, Rangarajan K., 1999. "Of Smiles and Smirks: A Term Structure Perspective," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 34(02), pages 211-239, June.
  2. David Heath & Eckhard Platen, 2006. "Local volatility function models under a benchmark approach," Quantitative Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 6(3), pages 197-206.
  3. Joshua Rosenberg, 1999. "Implied Volatility Functions: A Reprise," New York University, Leonard N. Stern School Finance Department Working Paper Seires 99-027, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business-.
  4. Eckhard Platen, 2001. "A Minimal Financial Market Model," Research Paper Series 48, Quantitative Finance Research Centre, University of Technology, Sydney.
  5. Neil Shephard, 2005. "Stochastic volatility," Economics Series Working Papers 2005-W17, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
  6. Rama Cont & Jose da Fonseca, 2002. "Dynamics of implied volatility surfaces," Quantitative Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 2(1), pages 45-60.
  7. Wolfgang Breymann & Leah Kelly & Eckhard Platen, 2005. "Intraday Empirical Analysis and Modeling of Diversified World Stock Indices," Asia-Pacific Financial Markets, Springer, vol. 12(1), pages 1-28, March.
  8. Heynen, Ronald & Kemna, Angelien & Vorst, Ton, 1994. "Analysis of the Term Structure of Implied Volatilities," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 29(01), pages 31-56, March.
  9. Franks, Julian R & Schwartz, Eduardo S, 1991. "The Stochastic Behaviour of Market Variance Implied in the Prices of Index Options," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 101(409), pages 1460-75, November.
  10. Eckhard Platen, 2001. "Arbitrage in Continuous Complete Markets," Research Paper Series 72, Quantitative Finance Research Centre, University of Technology, Sydney.
  11. Long, John Jr., 1990. "The numeraire portfolio," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 29-69, July.
  12. Eckhard Platen, 2003. "Modeling the Volatility and Expected Value of a Diversified World Index," Research Paper Series 103, Quantitative Finance Research Centre, University of Technology, Sydney.
  13. David Heath & S. Hurst & Eckhard Platen, 1999. "Modelling the Stochastic Dynamics of Volatility for Equity Indices," Research Paper Series 7, Quantitative Finance Research Centre, University of Technology, Sydney.
  14. Alan L. Lewis, 2000. "Option Valuation under Stochastic Volatility," Option Valuation under Stochastic Volatility, Finance Press, number ovsv, July.
  15. Eric Renault & Nizar Touzi, 1996. "Option Hedging And Implied Volatilities In A Stochastic Volatility Model," Mathematical Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 6(3), pages 279-302.
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Cited by:
  1. David Heath & Eckhard Platen, 2005. "Currency Derivatives under a Minimal Market Model with Random Scaling," Research Paper Series 154, Quantitative Finance Research Centre, University of Technology, Sydney.
  2. Shane Miller & Eckhard Platen, 2004. "A Two-Factor Model for Low Interest Rate Regimes," Asia-Pacific Financial Markets, Springer, vol. 11(1), pages 107-133, March.
  3. Eckhard Platen, 2004. "A Benchmark Approach to Finance," Research Paper Series 138, Quantitative Finance Research Centre, University of Technology, Sydney.

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