Organizing the Electronic Century
AbstractThis paper's title is an echo of Alfred Chandler's (2001) chronicle of the electronics industry, Inventing the Electronic Century. The paper attempts (A) a general reinterpretation of the pattern of technological advance in (American) electronics over the twentieth century and (B) a somewhat revisionist account of the role of organization and institution in that advance. The paper stresses the complex effects of product architecture and intellectual property regime on industrial organization and technological change. Whereas large research-oriented multi-divisional firms always played a crucial role in the industry's history, such firms proved most adept at systemic innovation, as in the case of television. But, as in the cases of early radio and of the IBM 360 mainframe computer, the multi-divisional firm was capable of bottling up within its boundaries (often through intellectual property rights) a relatively modular architecture whose "option value" such firms could not fully exploit. America's adherence to the model of industrial research within the vertically integrated corporation arguably contributed to the demise of American consumer electronics in the 1970s and 1980s. And America's subsequent relative success in semiconductors and personal computers --- and in today's converged digital consumer electronics --- owes much to the specialized and "fragmented" character of American industry, which could take fuller advantage of competitive global value chains and of the option value of modular architectures.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by University of Connecticut, Department of Economics in its series Working papers with number 2007-07.
Length: 71 pages
Date of creation: Mar 2007
Date of revision:
Note: Paper for the conference "Has There Been a Third Industrial Revolution in Global Business?" November 16-18, 2006, Bocconi University, Milan.
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electronics; modularity; product architecture; vertical integration.;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- L2 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior
- L63 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Manufacturing - - - Microelectronics; Computers; Communications Equipment
- N62 - Economic History - - Manufacturing and Construction - - - U.S.; Canada: 1913-
- O33 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Technological Change; Research and Development; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Technological Change: Choices and Consequences; Diffusion Processes
- O34 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Technological Change; Research and Development; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Intellectual Property Rights
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2007-04-09 (All new papers)
- NEP-HIS-2007-04-09 (Business, Economic & Financial History)
- NEP-INO-2007-04-09 (Innovation)
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Blog mentionsAs found by EconAcademics.org, the blog aggregator for Economics research:
- Intellectual Steam
by Dick Langlois in Organizations and Markets on 2010-05-19 18:38:49
- Patent Pools and Innovation
by rlanglois in Organizations and Markets on 2009-02-19 19:55:35
- Langlois, Richard N., 2013.
"Business groups and the natural state,"
Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization,
Elsevier, vol. 88(C), pages 14-26.
- Batiz-Lazo, Bernardo & Maixe-Altes, J. Carles, 2008. "Organisational change and the computerisation of British and Spanish savings banks, circa 1965-1985," MPRA Paper 14479, University Library of Munich, Germany.
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