Royale with Cheese: The Effect of Globalization on the Variety of Goods
AbstractThe key result of the so-called “New Trade Theory” is that countries gain from falling trade costs by an increase in the number of varieties available to consumers. Though the number of varieties in a given country rises, it is also true that global variety decreases from increased competition wherein imported varieties drive out some local varieties. This second result is a major issue for anti-trade activists who criticize the move towards free trade as promoting “homogenization” or “Americanization” of varieties across countries. We present a model of endogenous entry with heterogeneous firms which models this concern in two ways: a portion of a consumer’s income is spent overseas (i.e. tourism) and an existence value (a common tool in environmental economics where simply knowing that a species exists provides utility). Since lowering trade costs induces additional varieties to export and drives out some non-exported varieties, these modifications result in welfare losses not accounted for in the existing literature. Nevertheless, it is only through the existence value that welfare can fall as a result of declining trade barriers. Thus, for these criticisms of globalization to dominate, it must be that this loss in the existence value outweighs the direct benefits from consumption.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by School Of Economics, University College Dublin in its series Working Papers with number 201024.
Length: 22 Pages
Date of creation: 19 Jul 2010
Date of revision:
Trade Theory; Globalization; Variety; Tourism;
Other versions of this item:
- Matthew T. Cole & Ronald B. Davies, 2010. "Royale with Cheese: The Effect of Globalization on the Variety of Goods," The Institute for International Integration Studies Discussion Paper Series iiisdp329, IIIS.
- F12 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Models of Trade with Imperfect Competition and Scale Economies; Fragmentation
- F14 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Empirical Studies of Trade
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2010-07-24 (All new papers)
- NEP-INT-2010-07-24 (International Trade)
- NEP-OPM-2010-07-24 (Open Economy Macroeconomics)
- NEP-TUR-2010-07-24 (Tourism Economics)
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- Jan Jørgensen & Philipp Schröder & Zhihao Yu, 2012. "Globalization beyond partitioning: back to Krugman’s world," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer, vol. 148(1), pages 73-87, April.
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