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IPO underpricing and after-market liquidity

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The underpricing of the shares sold through Initial Public Offerings (IPOs) is generally explained with asymmetric information and risk. We complement these traditional explanations with a new theory. Investors who buy IPO shares are also concerned by expected liquidity and by the uncertainty about its level when shares start trading on the after-market. The less liquid shares are expected to be, and the less predictable their liquidity is, the larger will be the amount of "money left on the table" by the issuer. We present a model that integrates such liquidity concerns within a traditional framework with adverse selection and risk. The model's predictions are supported by evidence from a sample of 337 British IPOs effected between 1998 and 2000. Using various measures of liquidity, we find that expected after-market liquidity and liquidity risk are important determinants of IPO underpricing, after controlling for variables traditionally used to explain underpricing.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Centre for Studies in Economics and Finance (CSEF), University of Naples, Italy in its series CSEF Working Papers with number 99.

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Date of creation: 01 Jun 2003
Date of revision: 09 Feb 2006
Publication status: Published in Review of Financial Studies, 2006, vol. 19, pages 381-421
Handle: RePEc:sef:csefwp:99

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Keywords: liquidity; initial public offering; post-IPO market; after-market trading;

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  1. Luboš Pástor & Robert F. Stambaugh, . "Liquidity Risk and Expected Stock Returns," CRSP working papers 531, Center for Research in Security Prices, Graduate School of Business, University of Chicago.
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  4. Tim Loughran & Jay Ritter, 2004. "Why Has IPO Underpricing Changed Over Time?," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 33(3), Fall.
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  9. Michel Habib & Alexander Ljungqvist, 1999. "Underpricing and Entrepreneurial Wealth Losses in IPOs: Theory and Evidence," OFRC Working Papers Series 1999fe03, Oxford Financial Research Centre.
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  12. Ljungqvist, Alexander P, 2003. "Conflicts of Interest and Efficient Contracting in IPOs," CEPR Discussion Papers 4163, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
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  14. Amihud, Yakov & Mendelson, Haim, 1986. "Asset pricing and the bid-ask spread," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(2), pages 223-249, December.
  15. Datar, Vinay T. & Y. Naik, Narayan & Radcliffe, Robert, 1998. "Liquidity and stock returns: An alternative test," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 1(2), pages 203-219, August.
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