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Mann-Whitney Test with Adjustments to Pre-treatment Variables for Missing Values and Observational Study

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  • Chen, Songxi
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    Abstract

    The conventional Wilcoxon/Mann-Whitney test can be invalid for comparing treatment effects in the presence of missing values or in observational studies. This is because the missingness of the outcomes or the participation in the treatments may depend on certain pre-treatment variables. We propose an approach to adjust the Mann-Whitney test by correcting the potential bias via consistently estimating the conditional distributions of the outcomes given the pre-treatment variables. We also propose semiparametric extensions of the adjusted Mann-Whitney test which leads to dimension reduction for high dimensional covariate. A novel bootstrap procedure is devised to approximate the null distribution of the test statistics for practical implementations. Results from simulation studies and an economic observational study data analysis are presented to demonstrate the performance of the proposed approach.

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    File URL: http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/46239/
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    File URL: http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/46275/
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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 46239.

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    Date of creation: Jan 2013
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    Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:46239

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    Related research

    Keywords: Dimension reduction; Kernel smoothing; Mann-Whitney statistic; Missing outcomes; Observational studies; Selection bias.;

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    1. LaLonde, Robert J, 1986. "Evaluating the Econometric Evaluations of Training Programs with Experimental Data," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(4), pages 604-20, September.
    2. Qin, Jing & Shao, Jun & Zhang, Biao, 2008. "Efficient and Doubly Robust Imputation for Covariate-Dependent Missing Responses," Journal of the American Statistical Association, American Statistical Association, vol. 103, pages 797-810, June.
    3. Jinyong Hahn, 1998. "On the Role of the Propensity Score in Efficient Semiparametric Estimation of Average Treatment Effects," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 66(2), pages 315-332, March.
    4. Guido W. Imbens, 2004. "Nonparametric Estimation of Average Treatment Effects Under Exogeneity: A Review," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 86(1), pages 4-29, February.
    5. Peter Hall & Jeff Racine & Qi Li, 2004. "Cross-Validation and the Estimation of Conditional Probability Densities," Journal of the American Statistical Association, American Statistical Association, vol. 99, pages 1015-1026, December.
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