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Longevity hedging 101: A framework for longevity basis risk analysis and hedge effectiveness

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  • Coughlan, Guy
  • Khalaf-Allah, Marwa
  • Ye, Yijing
  • Kumar, Sumit
  • Cairns, Andrew
  • Blake, David
  • Dowd, Kevin

Abstract

Basis risk is an important consideration when hedging longevity risk with instruments based on longevity indices, since the longevity experience of the hedged exposure may differ from that of the index. As a result, any decision to execute an index-based hedge requires a framework for (1) developing an informed understanding of the basis risk, (2) appropriately calibrating the hedging instrument, and (3) evaluating hedge effectiveness. We describe such a framework and apply it to a U.K. case study, which compares the population of assured lives from the Continuous Mor- tality Investigation with the England and Wales national population. The framework is founded on an analysis of historical experience data, together with an appreciation of the contextual relationship between the two related populations in social, economic, and demographic terms. Despite the different demographic profiles, the case study provides evidence of stable long-term relationships between the mortality experiences of the two populations. This suggests the important result that high levels of hedge effectiveness should be achievable with appropriately cali- brated, static, index-based longevity hedges. Indeed, this is borne out in detailed calculations of hedge effectiveness for a hypothetical pension portfolio where the basis risk is based on the case study. A robustness check involving populations from the United States yields similar results.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 35743.

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Date of creation: 2011
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Publication status: Published in North American Actuarial Journal 2.15(2011): pp. 150-176
Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:35743

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Keywords: Longevity risk; basis risk; hedge effectiveness;

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References

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  1. Jennifer L. Wang & H.C. Huang & Sharon S. Yang & Jeffrey T. Tsai, 2010. "An Optimal Product Mix for Hedging Longevity Risk in Life Insurance Companies: The Immunization Theory Approach," Journal of Risk & Insurance, The American Risk and Insurance Association, vol. 77(2), pages 473-497.
  2. Leora Friedberg & Anthony Webb, 2006. "Life is Cheap: Using Mortality Bonds to Hedge Aggregate Mortality Risk," NBER Working Papers 11984, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Plat, Richard, 2009. "Stochastic portfolio specific mortality and the quantification of mortality basis risk," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 45(1), pages 123-132, August.
  4. Dowd, Kevin & Cairns, Andrew & Blake, David & Coughlan, Guy & Khalaf-Allah, Marwa, 2011. "A gravity model of mortality rates for two related populations," MPRA Paper 35738, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  5. Carter, Lawrence R. & Lee, Ronald D., 1992. "Modeling and forecasting US sex differentials in mortality," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 8(3), pages 393-411, November.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Blake, David & Biffs, Enrico, 2012. "Keeping Some Skin in the Game: How to Start a Capital Market in Longevity Risk Transfers," MPRA Paper 44680, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  2. Blake, David, 2009. "NDC v FDC: Pros, cons and replication," MPRA Paper 33752, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  3. Cairns, Andrew & Dowd, Kevin & Blake, David & Coughlan, Guy, 2011. "Longevity hedge effectiveness: a decomposition," MPRA Paper 34236, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  4. Dowd, Kevin & Cairns, Andrew & Blake, David & Coughlan, Guy & Khalaf-Allah, Marwa, 2011. "A gravity model of mortality rates for two related populations," MPRA Paper 35738, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  5. Biffis, Enrico & Blake, David & Pitotti, Lorenzo & Sun, Ariel, 2011. "The cost of counterparty risk and collateralization in longevity swaps," MPRA Paper 35740, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  6. Wong, Tat Wing & Chiu, Mei Choi & Wong, Hoi Ying, 2014. "Time-consistent mean–variance hedging of longevity risk: Effect of cointegration," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 56-67.
  7. Lin, Tzuling & Tsai, Cary Chi-Liang, 2013. "On the mortality/longevity risk hedging with mortality immunization," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(3), pages 580-596.
  8. David Blake & Christophe Courbage & Richard MacMinn & Michael Sherris, 2011. "Longevity Risk and Capital Markets: The 2010–2011 Update," The Geneva Papers on Risk and Insurance - Issues and Practice, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 36(4), pages 489-500, October.

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