Public expenditure and revenue in Italy, 1862-1993
AbstractThis study examines the long-run equilibrium relationship between government expenditure and revenue in Italy from 1862 to 1993, using cointegration techniques and the direction of causality relationship in the long and short runs between the variables through integrating the Error Correction Model (ECM) into the traditional Granger causality test. A Granger non-causality test (due to Toda and Yamamoto) is also performed. Unit root tests have been applied in order to investigate the stationarity properties of the series. Moreover, three more homogeneous sub-period (1862-1913; 1914-1946; 1947-1993) have been analyzed. The nexus between public expenditure and revenue has been discussed also by Impulse Response Functions (IRFs) and Forecast Error Variance Decompositions (FEVDs). Empirical findings show how, for each sub-period, the policy adopted reflect the prevailing paradigm of public finance (neutral or orthodox finance, Keynesian finance and discretionary or compensatory finance, respectively).
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 27308.
Date of creation: 08 Dec 2010
Date of revision:
Government expenditure; government revenue; stationarity; cointegration; causality; spend and tax; tax and spend; Italy.;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- E62 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook - - - Fiscal Policy
- C50 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - General
- H20 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - General
- B22 - Schools of Economic Thought and Methodology - - History of Economic Thought since 1925 - - - Macroeconomics
- C22 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models &bull Diffusion Processes
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Narayan, Paresh Kumar, 2005. "The government revenue and government expenditure nexus: empirical evidence from nine Asian countries," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(6), pages 1203-1216, January.
- Barro, Robert J., 1974.
"Are Government Bonds Net Wealth?,"
3451399, Harvard University Department of Economics.
- Hondroyiannis, George & Papapetrou, Evangelia, 1996. " An Examination of the Causal Relationship between Government Spending and Revenue: A Cointegration Analysis," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 89(3-4), pages 363-74, December.
- Anton Jevcak, 2004. "The Role of Symmetry between the Revenue and the Expenditure Side of the Government Budget in the Debate about the Potential Negative Effects of Tax Competition," Economic Change and Restructuring, Springer, vol. 37(3), pages 195-201, 09.
- Francisco de Castro & José Manuel González-Páramo & Pablo Hernández de Cos, 2004. "Fiscal consolidation in Spain: dynamic interdependence of public spending and revenues," Investigaciones Economicas, Fundación SEPI, vol. 28(1), pages 193-207, January.
- Bradley T. Ewing & James E. Payne & Mark A. Thompson & Omar M. Al-Zoubi, 2006. "Government Expenditures and Revenues: Evidence from Asymmetric Modeling," Southern Economic Journal, Southern Economic Association, vol. 73(1), pages 190â200, July.
- Tsangyao Chang & Wen Rong Liu & Steven Caudill, 2002. "Tax-and-spend, spend-and-tax, or fiscal synchronization: new evidence for ten countries," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 34(12), pages 1553-1561.
- Granger, C W J, 1969. "Investigating Causal Relations by Econometric Models and Cross-Spectral Methods," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 37(3), pages 424-38, July.
- Astrid Lemmer & Dan Stegarescu, 2009. "Revenue windfalls and expenditure slippages: Disappointing implementation of the reformed stability and growth pact," Intereconomics: Review of European Economic Policy, Springer, vol. 44(3), pages 159-165, May.
- James Payne, 1997. "The tax-spend debate: the case of Canada," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 4(6), pages 381-386.
- Antonio Manzini & Milad Zarin-Nejadan, 1995. "The Causal Relationship Between Government Expenditure and Revenue: The Case of Switzerland," Swiss Journal of Economics and Statistics (SJES), Swiss Society of Economics and Statistics (SSES), vol. 131(IV), pages 637-647, December.
- Alan T. Peacock & Jack Wiseman, 1961. "The Growth of Public Expenditure in the United Kingdom," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number peac61-1.
- Razzolini, Laura & Shughart, William F, II, 1997. " On the (Relative) Unimportance of a Balanced Budget," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 90(1-4), pages 215-33, March.
- Saunoris, James W. & Payne, James E., 2010. "Tax more or spend less? Asymmetries in the UK revenue-expenditure nexus," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 32(4), pages 478-487, July.
- Jean-Claude Nachega & Ousmane Dore, 2000. "Budgetary Convergence in the Waemu - Adjustment Through Revenue or Expenditure?," IMF Working Papers 00/109, International Monetary Fund.
- Abbas Alavirad, 2003. "The Effect of Inflation on Government Revenue and Expenditure: The Case of the Islamic Republic of Iran," OPEC Energy Review, Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries, vol. 27(4), pages 331-341, December.
- Eita, Joel Hinaunye & Mbazima, Daisy, 2008. "The Causal Relationship Between Government Revenue and Expenditure in Namibia," MPRA Paper 9154, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Luis Gil-Alana, 2009. "Government Expenditures and Revenues: Evidence of Fractional Cointegration in an Asymmetric Modeling," International Advances in Economic Research, Springer, vol. 15(2), pages 143-155, May.
- Brennan,Geoffrey & Buchanan,James M., 2008. "The Reason of Rules," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521070904, December.
- Toda, Hiro Y. & Yamamoto, Taku, 1995. "Statistical inference in vector autoregressions with possibly integrated processes," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 66(1-2), pages 225-250.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Ekkehart Schlicht).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.