Building Bankomat: The development of on-line, real-time systems in British and Swedish savings banks, c.1965-1985
AbstractThe massification of retail finance in the 1980s relied on the successful deployment of automated teller machines (ATM) and on-line real-time (OLRT) computing during the 1960s and 1970s. We document how the deployment of ATM networks interweaved with the adoption of OLRT computing in Sweden and the UK (alongside a running comparison of similar developments in the USA). Low transaction volume and small retail bank networks facilitated the early adoption of OLRT by savings banks in America. Although they started their computerisation rather ‘late’, British savings banks benefited from adopting ‘tried and tested’ technology while overtaking clearing banks. Meanwhile, Swedish savings banks spearheaded technological change in Europe. In documenting cases of organizational change in Sweden and the UK, we depart from predominant view that considers the development of OLRT in a single move. We put forward the idea that there are specific conditions inside banking organisations that require considering on-line (OL) and on-line real-time (OLRT) as two distinct stage of development in adoption of computer technology. As a result, we show how in the process of diffusion of OLRT computing enabled the transformation of cash dispensers into ATM at the same time that European financial intermediaries were active in shaping technological change.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 27084.
Date of creation: May 2009
Date of revision:
cash dispensers (ATM); computers (on-line; real-time); technological change; savings banks; Great Britain; Sweden; USA.;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- N24 - Economic History - - Financial Markets and Institutions - - - Europe: 1913-
- E42 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Monetary Sytsems; Standards; Regimes; Government and the Monetary System
- N84 - Economic History - - Micro-Business History - - - Europe: 1913-
- G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
- L63 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Manufacturing - - - Microelectronics; Computers; Communications Equipment
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
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"Technological change, financial innovation, and diffusion in banking,"
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Blog mentionsAs found by EconAcademics.org, the blog aggregator for Economics research:
- European ATM Conference & the Cashless Society
by Bernardo Bátiz-Lazo in Light Blue Touchpaper on 2012-06-12 18:22:02
- Maixe-Altes, J. Carles, 2012.
"Las cajas de ahorro y el cambio tecnológico antes de Internet, 1945-1995
[Technological change in Spanish Savings Banks before Internet, 1945-1995]," MPRA Paper 37726, University Library of Munich, Germany.
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