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Re-evaluating the success of the EPA's 33/50 program: evidence from facility participation

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  • Martina, Vidovic
  • Neha, Khanna

Abstract

Using previously unavailable data, we examine facility participation in the 33/50 Program and its effect on aggregate and toxicity weighted emissions between1991 and 1995 for a sample of facilities whose parent firms committed to the Program. By focusing on individual facilities we avoid the biases created by aggregating emissions across facilities. We find that while more polluting facilities within a firm were more likely to participate, even when we account for the toxicity of emissions, across firms there is no evidence of greater participation by facilities with higher emissions. Although emissions of the 33/50 chemicals fell over the years, we find that participation in the Program did not lead to the decline in the 33/50 releases generated by these facilities.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 25037.

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Date of creation: 16 Aug 2010
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Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:25037

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Keywords: Toxic Release Inventory; program participation; program evaluation; GMM; dynamic panel;

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  1. Robert Innes & Abdoul G. Sam, 2008. "Voluntary Pollution Reductions and the Enforcement of Environmental Law: An Empirical Study of the 33/50 Program," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 51(2), pages 271-296, 05.
  2. Blundell, R. & Bond, S., 1995. "Initial Conditions and Moment Restrictions in Dynamic Panel Data Models," Economics Papers 104, Economics Group, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.
  3. John W. Maxwell & Thomas P Lyon & Steven C.. Hackett, 1995. "Self-Regulation and Social Welfare: The Political Economy of Corporate Environmentalism," University of Chicago - George G. Stigler Center for Study of Economy and State, Chicago - Center for Study of Economy and State 122, Chicago - Center for Study of Economy and State.
  4. Arellano, Manuel & Bover, Olympia, 1995. "Another look at the instrumental variable estimation of error-components models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 29-51, July.
  5. Segerson, Kathleen & Miceli, Thomas J., 1998. "Voluntary Environmental Agreements: Good or Bad News for Environmental Protection?," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 36(2), pages 109-130, September.
  6. Henriques, Irene & Sadorsky, Perry, 1996. "The Determinants of an Environmentally Responsive Firm: An Empirical Approach," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 30(3), pages 381-395, May.
  7. Arellano, Manuel & Bond, Stephen, 1991. "Some Tests of Specification for Panel Data: Monte Carlo Evidence and an Application to Employment Equations," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 58(2), pages 277-97, April.
  8. Frank Windmeijer, 2000. "A finite sample correction for the variance of linear two-step GMM estimators," IFS Working Papers, Institute for Fiscal Studies W00/19, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
  9. Khanna, Madhu & Damon, Lisa A., 1999. "EPA's Voluntary 33/50 Program: Impact on Toxic Releases and Economic Performance of Firms," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 1-25, January.
  10. Vidovic, Martina & Khanna, Neha, 2007. "Can voluntary pollution prevention programs fulfill their promises? Further evidence from the EPA's 33/50 Program," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 53(2), pages 180-195, March.
  11. J Videras & A Alberini, 2000. "The appeal of voluntary environmental programs: which firms participate and why?," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 18(4), pages 449-460, October.
  12. Seema Arora & Timothy N. Cason, 1996. "Why Do Firms Volunteer to Exceed Environmental Regulations? Understanding Participation in EPA's 33/50 Program," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 72(4), pages 413-432.
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