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International Migrants in Developed, Emerging and Developing Countries: An Extended Profile

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  • Jean-Christophe Dumont
  • Gilles Spielvogel
  • Sarah Widmaier

Abstract

Increasing international mobility makes international comparable data even more important, to depict global migration patterns and its characteristics, not only in receiving countries but also in origin countries. This paper provides a detailed picture of immigrant and emigrant populations around the year 2000 based on the new global bilateral migration database DIOC-E. DIOC-E gives the opportunity to investigate various aspects of South-South migration and to make reliable comparisons with South-North migration. In particular, emigration rates for different skill levels can be computed, including many key destination countries outside the OECD area, based on more accurate education data in origin countries. This refines and challenges previous conclusions regarding the relative importance of migration in different regions of the world, main characteristics of emigrants, and sheds light on such key issues as the gender dimension of international migration and the selectivity of migration flows. DIOC-E (release 2.0) covers 89 destination countries, of which 61 are outside the OECD area. It includes information on 110 million migrants aged 15 and over by skill level, age, gender and labour market outcomes, which represents around 72% of the estimated number of international migrants worldwide. In total there are 46.8 million low-skilled migrants (43.6%), 37.5 million migrants with intermediate skill level (35%) and 23 million highly skilled migrants (21.5%). Although low-skilled migration still dominates in absolute terms both to the OECD and to non-OECD countries, emigration rates for highly skilled persons exceed total emigration rates in all regions, which reflect the selective nature of migration. The econometric analyses of bilateral determinants of migration of the high-skilled distinguish South-North and South-South migration. Regarding migration to OECD countries, the relationship between the emigration rate of the highly skilled and the income level of origin countries follows an inverted U-shape relationship. But this is not the case for migration to non-OECD countries. Both total and high-skilled emigration rates to non-OECD countries steadily increase as the level of income of the origin countries decreases. La croissance de la mobilité internationale souligne l’importance de données internationales comparables pour décrire la migration mondiale et ses caractéristiques, non seulement dans les pays de destination mais aussi dans les pays d’origine. Ce document donne une image détaillée des populations émigrée et immigrée dans les années 2000 à partir de la nouvelle base de données bilatérale mondiale DIOC-E. DIOC-E offre la possibilité d’étudier différents aspects de la migration sud-sud et de réaliser des comparaisons fiables avec la migration sud-nord. En particulier, des données fiables dans les pays d’origine permettent de calculer des taux d’expatriation par niveaux d’éducation en incluant les grands pays de destination hors de la zone OCDE. Cela remet en question des conclusions établies précédemment sur l’importance relative de la migration dans différentes régions du monde, affine les caractéristiques principales des émigrés et donne un éclairage sur des questions clés comme la dimension « genre » de la migration internationale et la sélectivité des mouvements migratoires. DIOC-E (release 2.0) contient des données pour 89 pays de destination, dont 61 sont en dehors de la zone OCDE. La base de données contient des informations par niveaux d’éducation, âge, genre et des résultats sur le marché du travail pour 110 millions de migrants âgés de 15 ans et plus, soit environ 72% de l’estimation mondiale des migrants internationaux. Au total, 46.8 millions de migrants (43.6%) sont faiblement qualifiés, 37.5 millions (35%) ont un niveau d’éducation intermédiaire et 23 millions (21.5%) sont hautement qualifiés. Bien que la migration faiblement qualifiée prédomine en termes absolus, tant vers les pays de l’OCDE que vers les pays non-OCDE, les taux d’expatriation des migrants hautement qualifiés dépassent les taux d’expatriation globaux dans toutes les régions, reflétant ainsi la sélectivité de la migration. Les analyses économétriques des déterminants bilatéraux de la migration des personnes hautement qualifiées distinguent la migration sud-nord des migrations sud-sud. En ce qui concerne la migration vers les pays de l’OCDE, la relation entre le taux d’expatriation des personnes hautement qualifiées et le niveau de revenus des pays d’origine suit une courbe en U inversée. Cela n’est pas le cas pour la migration vers les pays non-OCDE. Les taux d’expatriation globaux ainsi que ceux des personnes hautement qualifiées vers les pays non-OCDE augmentent lorsque le niveau de revenu des pays d’origine diminue.

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File URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5km4g1bk3r7h-en
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by OECD Publishing in its series OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers with number 114.

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Date of creation: 09 Dec 2010
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Handle: RePEc:oec:elsaab:114-en

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Keywords: development; skills; international migration; database; immigrants; DIOC-E; DIOC; education; migrant stocks; emigrants; emigration rates; émigrés; éducation; migration internationale; base de données; DIOC-E; stock de migrants; développement; DIOC; taux d’expatriation; qualification; immigrés;

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Cited by:
  1. Capuano, Stella & Marfouk, Abdeslam, 2013. "African brain drain and its impact on source countries: What do we know and what do we need to know?," MPRA Paper 47944, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  2. Bichaka Fayissa & Christian Nsiah, 2012. "Financial Development and Remittances in Africa and the Americas: A Panel Unit-Root Tests and Panel Cointegration Analysis," Working Papers 201201, Middle Tennessee State University, Department of Economics and Finance.
  3. repec:wip:wpaper:8 is not listed on IDEAS
  4. Aleksynska, Mariya & Peri, Giovanni, 2012. "Isolating the Network Effect of Immigrants on Trade," IZA Discussion Papers 6941, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  5. Ernest Miguelez & Carsten Fink, 2013. "Measuring the International Mobility of Inventors: A New Database," WIPO Economic Research Working Papers 08, World Intellectual Property Organization - Economics and Statistics Division, revised May 2013.

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