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Innovative Research-Based Approaches to Learning and Teaching

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  • Gesa Sonja Elsa van den Broek
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    Abstract

    Building on an earlier 2008 summary prepared for OECD by Marlene Scardamalia and Carl Bereiter, this paper by Gesa S. E. van den Broek provides a more extensive discussion of approaches described as “research based innovation.” Fostering Communities of Learning is a constructivist approach in which teachers help students discover important curricular concepts. Learning by Design is an inquiry-based science learning programme based on case-based reasoning models. Central Conceptual Structures (CCS) theory describes developmental changes in children’s thinking and what is needed to progress through stages in specific cognitive domains. Web-based Inquiry Science Environment (WISE) is an internet-based adaptive learning environment building on the principles of knowledge integration. Cognitive Tutors and ACT-R theory are intelligent adaptive software programmes that provide students with scaffolded instruction and feedback. Direct Instruction aims to accelerate learning through clear scripted direct instruction by the teacher and scaffolded practice aimed at student involvement and error reduction. Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) is for disadvantaged students especially to engage in Socratic dialogues about ideas and strategies to solve computer game-based problems. Knowledge Building is a constructivist teaching approach centred on building knowledge and creating knowledge communities. S’inspirant d’une synthèse précédente rédigée par Marlene Scardamalia et Carl Bereiter pour l’OCDE en 2008, la présente note, de Gesa S. E. van den Broek, propose une réflexion plus large sur les approches relevant de ce que l’on appelle « l’innovation fondée sur la recherche ». Encourager les communautés apprenantes s’inscrit dans une démarche constructiviste selon laquelle les enseignants aident leurs élèves à découvrir des concepts importants du programme scolaire. Learning by Design est un programme d’apprentissage des sciences à partir d’enquêtes et de modèles de raisonnement fondés sur des études de cas. La théorie des structures conceptuelles centrales décrit l’évolution développementale du raisonnement des enfants et ce qui est nécessaire pour progresser et franchir des étapes dans des domaines cognitifs particuliers. WISE (Web-based Inquiry Science Environment) est un environnement pédagogique adaptatif sur internet qui repose sur les principes de l’intégration des connaissances. Les tuteurs cognitifs et la théorie ACT-R sont des logiciels adaptatifs intelligents qui proposent aux élèves une instruction et des retours d’information étayés. L’instruction directe vise à accélérer l’apprentissage grâce à des cours clairs, structurés et directs prodigués par l’enseignant, ainsi qu’à travers une application pratique et documentée favorisant la participation des élèves et la diminution des erreurs. Le programme HOTS (Higher Order Thinking Skills), destiné aux élèves de milieux défavorisés, a notamment pour objectif d’organiser des échanges d’idées et de stratégies en vue de résoudre des problèmes à partir de jeux électroniques. Le renforcement des connaissances est une approche pédagogique constructiviste axée sur le développement des connaissances et la création de communautés du savoir.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by OECD Publishing in its series OECD Education Working Papers with number 79.

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    Date of creation: 14 Jun 2012
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    Handle: RePEc:oec:eduaab:79-en

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