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Modernising Canada's Agricultural Policies

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  • Peter Jarrett
  • Shuji Kobayakawa
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    Abstract

    The agricultural sector in Canada is relatively large, compared to those in most other G7 countries. In recent years, the federal and provincial governments have undertaken a number of sectoral reforms to meet the competitiveness and environmental challenges that it faces. The federal government has tried to end a marketing monopoly in the barley market and may do so for wheat as well. The next generation of agriculture and agri-food policy is being finalised, and implementation of the first part of a new framework, Growing Forward, has begun. But a steady stream of ad hoc programmes in recent years has had significant budgetary costs and no doubt created moral hazard among farmers. There is scope for further liberalisation in supply-managed sectors, which are heavily protected and subsidised by consumers. Moreover, Canada’s bio-energy production, in particular the production of second-generation bio-ethanol (from cellulose), is under pressure in light of less costly bio-energy production overseas. Against this background, governments are striving to ensure the long-term viability of the sector. This Working Paper relates to the 2008 OECD Economic Survey of Canada (www.oecd.org/eco/surveys/canada). Moderniser la politique agricole du Canada Le Canada dispose d’un secteur agricole relativement important, par rapport à la plupart des autres pays du G7. Ces dernières années, des réformes ont été entreprises dans plusieurs domaines, au niveau fédéral et provincial, pour surmonter les problèmes de compétitivité et d’environnement auxquels est confrontée l’agriculture. Le gouvernement fédéral a tenté de mettre fin à un monopole sur la commercialisation de l’orge et pourrait envisager la même démarche pour le blé. La nouvelle politique agricole et agroalimentaire est en cours de finalisation et la mise en oeuvre de la première partie d’un nouveau cadre stratégique, Cultivons l'avenir, a commencé. Mais les programmes ad hoc qui se sont succédé depuis peu ont pesé lourdement sur le budget, non sans créer un aléa moral pour les agriculteurs. Il est possible d’aller plus loin dans la libéralisation des filières soumises à une gestion de l’offre, qui sont largement protégées et subventionnées par les consommateurs. Par ailleurs, la production canadienne de bioénergie, notamment de bioéthanol de seconde génération (à partir de cellulose), est concurrencée par une production bioénergétique étrangère moins coûteuse. C’est dans ce contexte que s’inscrivent les efforts déployés par les pouvoirs publics pour assurer la viabilité du secteur à long terme. Ce Document de travail se rapporte à l’Étude économique de l’OCDE du Canada, 2008 (www.oecd.org/eco/etudes/canada).

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    File URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/240820753484
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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by OECD Publishing in its series OECD Economics Department Working Papers with number 629.

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    Date of creation: 04 Aug 2008
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    Handle: RePEc:oec:ecoaaa:629-en

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    Keywords: agriculture; supply management; Canada; biofuels; gestion de l’offre; bioéthanol; Canada; agriculture;

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