Advanced Search
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

Consumer preferences for apple: Comparing the results of contingent valuation method and a real purchasing situation


Author Info

  • Anabela Botelho

    (NIMA, Universidade do Minho)

  • Lina Sofia Lourenço-Gomes

    (University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro)

  • Lígia M.Costa Pinto

    (NIMA, Universidade do Minho)


Increased competition in agro-food systems has motivated the appearance of new or more heterogeneous products. In addition consumers are increasingly more demanding about product information and characteristics, associated with a move towards products that differentiate themselves by its environmental characteristics, health effects, quality, origin, etc. Thus consumers’ preferences became more complex and diversified. Consumers are faced with a great variety of competing products and firms are ever more interested in identifying the attributes, or the combination of attributes, that are most valued by consumers. Valuation studies have sought to determine the influence of certain attributes in the willingness to pay (WTP) measures, including the importance of organically produced fruit and vegetables (Zhao et al., 2007; Radman, 2005) or the effect of providing additional information, with respect for example the health benefits, (Ginon et al. 2007; Marette et al., 2010; Bocaletti and Nardella, 2000). Considering a set of relevant characteristics, this paper investigates the influence of the attribute “National Variety” on rank order preferences and on the willingness to pay measures. The procedure assesses the effect of the origin of apple variety, comparing the values from an open ended question on the willingness to pay for two apple varieties. The elicitation of the value is performed with information on this characteristic and after tasting and rating the varieties. These results are then compared to the value elicited in a real purchasing situation, where the respondent can buy the preferred apple (one kg) if the elicited value on the open ended question is superior to an extracted random price. In sum, the paper demonstrates the applicability of the Contingent Valuation Method to eliciting the effect of information on an attribute on elicited WTP; It tests for hypothetical bias in this elicitation framework. The results show that predicted mean WTP for national varieties is lower than the predicted willingness to pay for foreign varieties. In addition, the results reveal a statistically significant hypothetical bias in the case of the National varieties, but not in the case of the foreign varieties.

Download Info

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
File URL:
File Function: full text
Download Restriction: none

Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Núcleo de Investigação em Microeconomia Aplicada (NIMA), Universidade do Minho in its series NIMA Working Papers with number 51.

as in new window
Length: 26 pages
Date of creation: Jun 2013
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:nim:nimawp:51/2013

Contact details of provider:
Postal: NIMA, EEG - Universidade do Minho, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal
Phone: +351 253601930
Fax: +351 253601380
Web page:

Order Information:
Postal: NIMA, EEG - Universidade do Minho, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal

Related research

Keywords: Experimental Economics; Agro-food economics; Valuation methods;

This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:


References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
as in new window
  1. Culyer, A. J. & Wagstaff, Adam, 1993. "Equity and equality in health and health care," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(4), pages 431-457, December.
  2. Tsuchiya, Aki, 1999. "Age-related preferences and age weighting health benefits," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 48(2), pages 267-276, January.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
as in new window

Cited by:
  1. Anabela Botelho & Isabel Dinis & Lina Sofia Lourenço-Gomes & Jorge Moreira & Lígia M.Costa Pinto, 2014. "Consumers’ valuation of national versus foreign varieties of tomatoes: results of a contingent valuation study in Portugal," NIMA Working Papers 56, Núcleo de Investigação em Microeconomia Aplicada (NIMA), Universidade do Minho.
  2. Anabela Botelho & Isabel Dinis & Lina Sofia Lourenço-Gomes & Jorge Moreira & Lígia M.Costa Pinto, 2013. "The importance of the origin of apple varieties: results from a discrete choice experiment in Portugal," NIMA Working Papers 54, Núcleo de Investigação em Microeconomia Aplicada (NIMA), Universidade do Minho.


This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.


Access and download statistics


When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:nim:nimawp:51/2013. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (NIMA).

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.