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Heart of Darkness: Modeling Public-Private Funding Interactions Inside the R&D Black Box

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  • Paul A. David
  • Bronwyn H. Hall

Abstract

This paper is a first step toward closing the analytical gap in the extensive literature on the results of interactions between public and private R&D expenditures, and their joint effects on the economy. Econometric studies in this area report a plethora of sometimes confusing and frequently contradictory estimates of the response of company financed R&D to changes in the level and nature of public R&D expenditure, but the necessary theoretical framework within which the empirical results can be interpreted is seldom provided. A major cause of inconsistencies' in the empirical literature is the failure to recognize key differences among the various policy experiments' being considered depending upon the economy in which they are embedded, and the type of public sector R&D spending that is contemplated. Using a simple, stylized structural model, we identify the main channels of impact of public R&D. We thus can characterize the various effects, distinguishing between short-run and long-run impacts that would show up in simple regression analyses of nominal public and private R&D expenditure variables. Within the context of our simple model it is possible to offer interpretations that shed light on recent cross-section and panel data findings at both high (i.e. national) and low (specific technology area) levels of aggregation.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 7538.

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Date of creation: Feb 2000
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Publication status: published as Research Policy, Vol. 29 (June 2000).
Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:7538

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  1. Bergstrom, Theodore & Blume, Lawrence & Varian, Hal, 1986. "On the private provision of public goods," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 25-49, February.
  2. Bruno Van Pottelsberghe & Dominique Guellec, 2001. "The effectiveness of public policies in R&D," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/6225, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  3. Charles I. Jones & John C. Williams, . "Measuring the Social Return to R&D," Working Papers 97002, Stanford University, Department of Economics.
  4. Arthur M. Diamond, 1999. "Does Federal Funding "Crowd In" Private Funding Of Science?," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 17(4), pages 423-431, October.
  5. Cowan, Robin & David, Paul A & Foray, Dominique, 2000. "The Explicit Economics of Knowledge Codification and Tacitness," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 9(2), pages 211-53, June.
  6. David, P. A., 1997. "From market magic to calypso science policy a review of Terence Kealey's The economic laws of scientific research," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 26(2), pages 229-255, May.
  7. Austan Goolsbee, 1998. "Does Government R&D Policy Mainly Benefit Scientists and Engineers?," NBER Working Papers 6532, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Diamond, Arthur Jr., 2003. "Edwin Mansfield's contributions to the economics of technology," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(9), pages 1607-1617, October.
  9. Paula E. Stephan, 1996. "The Economics of Science," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 34(3), pages 1199-1235, September.
  10. Paul A. David, 1999. "The Political Economy of Public Science," Working Papers 99022, Stanford University, Department of Economics.
  11. Cohen, Wesley M & Levinthal, Daniel A, 1989. "Innovation and Learning: The Two Faces of R&D," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 99(397), pages 569-96, September.
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Cited by:
  1. Nicola Lacetera, 2003. "Incentives and spillovers in R&D activities: an agency-theoretic analysis of industry-university relations," Microeconomics 0312004, EconWPA.
  2. Gray, Richard S. & Malla, Stavroula & Tran, Kien C., 2003. "An Empirical Analysis Of Public And Private Spillovers Within The Canola Biotech Industry," 2003 Annual meeting, July 27-30, Montreal, Canada 22137, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
  3. Wang, Chenggang & Xia, Yin & Shoemaker, Robbin A. & Buccola, Steven T., 2006. "Public Investment Policy in Life-Science Research," 2006 Annual meeting, July 23-26, Long Beach, CA 21330, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
  4. Joshua S. Gans & Scott Stern, 2000. "When Does Funding Research by Smaller Firms Bear Fruit?: Evidence from the SBIR Program," NBER Working Papers 7877, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Muscio, Alessandro & Quaglione, Davide & Vallanti, Giovanna, 2013. "Does government funding complement or substitute private research funding to universities?," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 42(1), pages 63-75.
  6. Manuel Trajtenberg, 2000. "R&D Policy in Israel: An Overview and Reassessment," NBER Working Papers 7930, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Giovanni Cerulli, 2008. "Modelling and measuring the effects of public subsidies on business R&D: theoretical and econometric issues," CERIS Working Paper 200803, Institute for Economic Research on Firms and Growth - Moncalieri (TO).
  8. Benjamin Montmartin & Marcos Herrera, 2014. "Internal and External Effects of R&D Subsidies and Fiscal Incentives: Empirical Evidence Using Spatial Dynamic Panel Models," GREDEG Working Papers 2014-09, Groupe de REcherche en Droit, Economie, Gestion (GREDEG CNRS), University of Nice Sophia Antipolis.
  9. Tommy Clausen, 2008. "Do subsidies have positive impacts on R&D and innovation activities at the firm level?," Working Papers on Innovation Studies 20070615, Centre for Technology, Innovation and Culture, University of Oslo.
  10. Toole, Andrew A., 2005. "Does Public Scientific Research Complement Industry R&D Investment? The Case of NIH Supported Basic and Clinical Research and Pharmaceutical Industry R&D," ZEW Discussion Papers 05-75, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  11. GROSSE Olivier & SEVI Benoît, 2005. "Dérégulation et R&D dans le secteur énergétique européen," Cahiers du CREDEN (CREDEN Working Papers) 05.07.59, CREDEN (Centre de Recherche en Economie et Droit de l'Energie), Faculty of Economics, University of Montpellier 1.
  12. Stephen Roper & Nola Hewitt-Dundas & James H Love, 2003. "An Ex Ante Evaluation Framework for the Regional Impact of Publicly Supported R&D Projects," ERSA conference papers ersa03p100, European Regional Science Association.
  13. Matsushima, Kazunari & Aoshima, Yaichi, 2014. "The Spillover Effects of Publicly Supported Private R&D : Analysis of NEDO Follow-up Survey Data," IIR Working Paper 14-04, Institute of Innovation Research, Hitotsubashi University.
  14. Anders S�rensen & Hans Christian Kongsted & Mats Marcusson, 2003. "R&D, public innovation policy, and productivity: The case of danish manufacturing," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(2), pages 163-178.
  15. María Morales, 2004. "Research policy and endogenous growth," Spanish Economic Review, Springer, vol. 6(3), pages 179-209, October.
  16. Tommy Clausen, 2007. "Access (not) granted: What kinds of firms participate in technology programs?," Working Papers on Innovation Studies 20070612, Centre for Technology, Innovation and Culture, University of Oslo.
  17. Menrad, K., 2004. "Innovations in the food industry in Germany," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(6-7), pages 845-878, September.

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