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The Choice of Health Policies with Heterogeneous Populations

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  • Richard J. Zeckhauser
  • Donald S. Shepard

Abstract

Deciding whether to fund a given health program involves both statistical and ethical issues. Traditional statistical methods of measuring program effectiveness may give misleading results unless careful attention is paid to the question of population heterogeneity. Even within particular age and sex categories, members of a population typically differ in both their mortality rate and the extent to which they would benefit from a given medical intervention. It may or may not be possible to identify the risk factors (e. g., weight, smoking behavior) that explain these differences. If an intervention confers unequal benefit on different risk groups, it will change their mixture within the population over time. If those helped most are those at greatest risk, a "traditional assessment" will overstate intervention benefits. Greater accuracy can be achieved through a "standardized assessment, " which calculates intervention benefits separately for each distinctive risk group of the population. For example, a traditional assessment of pneumococcal pneumonia vaccine probably overstates program benefits and underestimates costs. Failure to recognize population heterogeneity also creates pitfalls in interpreting the results of clinical trials of new drugs, as illustrated by the example of sulfinpyrazone. As more sophisticated statistical methods improve our understanding of differential program benefits, they will also raise ethical problems. Use of a standardized assessment, for instance, may make it clear that it is cost-effective to give an intervention to certain groups (e.g., nonsmokers, the elderly) but not others. Considering this problem from an "original position" may reveal an ethically acceptable basis for making such decisions on the basis of efficiency. We believe that if people were unaware of which risk group they themselves would fall into, they would elect to allocate resources according to the principle of cost-effectiveness.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 0612.

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Date of creation: Dec 1980
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Publication status: published as Shephard, Donald S. and Zeckhauser, Richard J. The Choice of Health Policies with Heterogeneous Populations." Economic Aspects of Health, edited By Victor R. Fuchs, pp. 255-297. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982.
Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:0612

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Cited by:
  1. David Bishai & Jody Sindelar, 2006. "Willingness to Pay for Drug Rehabilitation: Implications for Cost Recovery," NBER Working Papers 12506, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. John Mullahy, 2001. "Live long, live well: quantifying the health of heterogeneous populations," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 10(5), pages 429-440.

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