The Declines in Infant Mortality and Fertility: Evidence from British Cities in Demographic Transition
AbstractAt the beginning of the twentieth century Britain was roughly halfway through a 60-year demographic transition with declining infant mortality and birth rates. Cities exhibited great and strongly correlated diversity in these rates. We demonstrate cross-section correlations with, for instance, women's employment, population density, literacy and improved water supply and sanitation, that have been linked to the transition. When we analyse data from the late 1850s and the early 1900s, the changes in the two rates are not correlated across cities, but we find a robust and large impact from sanitation improvement to long-period infant mortality reduction. We also find the extension of basic literacy is related to increases in female labour market participation, which is in turn related to fertility reduction. Lastly we find that more rapid urban growth accelerates fertility decline, but, in late 19th century Britain it slowed the reduction of infant mortality.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 6855.
Length: 28 pages
Date of creation: Sep 2012
Date of revision:
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Other versions of this item:
- Andrew Newell & Ian Gazeley, 2012. "The declines in infant mortality and fertility: Evidence from British cities in demographic transition," Working Paper Series 4812, Department of Economics, University of Sussex.
- N33 - Economic History - - Labor and Consumers, Demography, Education, Health, Welfare, Income, Wealth, Religion, and Philanthropy - - - Europe: Pre-1913
- J13 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
- I15 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - Health and Economic Development
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2012-10-06 (All new papers)
- NEP-DEM-2012-10-06 (Demographic Economics)
- NEP-HEA-2012-10-06 (Health Economics)
- NEP-HIS-2012-10-06 (Business, Economic & Financial History)
- NEP-URE-2012-10-06 (Urban & Real Estate Economics)
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