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Investimento Estrangeiro Direto e Inovação: Um Estudo Sobre Ramos Selecionados da Indústria no Brasil

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  • Marina Filgueiras Jorge
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    Abstract

    A partir da década de 1990, a economia brasileira passou por reformas estruturais e liberalizantes, além de intensa internacionalização produtiva. Este trabalho explora em que medida a maior participação do investimento estrangeiro direto (IED) ajudou ou inibiu o processo de mudança estrutural na indústria, analisando a existência ou não de transbordamento - spillover - de produtividade, a partir da presença de empresas transnacionais em cinco cadeias produtivas selecionadas no período de 1998 a 2003. Por meio da análise de painel com microdados das empresas industriais, os resultados indicaram a existência de vantagens competitivas das empresas transnacionais (ETNs) em relação às empresas locais. Esse diferencial de desempenho, no entanto, não se mostrou uma fonte de transferência de conhecimento tecnológico que pudesse refletir em ganhos de produtividade para as empresas fornecedoras domésticas. Além disso, os efeitos sobre as cadeias produtivas mostraram-se heterogêneos. De modo que esse resultado pode ajudar no desenvolvimento de instrumentos da política industrial seletiva. During the 90s, brazilian economy has passed through structural and liberalizing reforms, besides an intense productive internationalization. This study explores to what extent FDI helped or hindered those structural changes in industry, analyzing whether positive (or negative) productivity spillovers arose from the presence of TNCs affiliates between 1998 and 2003 in some selected industrial chains, as manufacture of electric equipments, manufacture of electronical equipments, manufacture of vehicles, manufacture of pharmaceuticals and manufacture of vegetable oils. The analysis, based on firm-level data from industrial firms and panel data techniques, produces evidences consistent with TNCs affiliates having higher productivity levels than domestic firms. However, this fact did not result in technological knowledge transfer that could reflect in productivity gains for local suppliers in upstream sectors. The results also indicate that spillovers associated with different industrial chains are heterogeneous and that this acknowledge may help the instrument design for industrial policies.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada - IPEA in its series Discussion Papers with number 1327.

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    Length: 33 pages
    Date of creation: Feb 2008
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    Handle: RePEc:ipe:ipetds:1327

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    1. Beata Smarzynska Javorcik, 2004. "Does Foreign Direct Investment Increase the Productivity of Domestic Firms? In Search of Spillovers Through Backward Linkages," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 94(3), pages 605-627, June.
    2. Célio Hiratuka & Rogério Dias de Araújo, 2006. "Exportações Das Firmas Domésticas E Influência Das Firmas Transnacionais," Anais do XXXIV Encontro Nacional de Economia [Proceedings of the 34th Brazilian Economics Meeting] 128, ANPEC - Associação Nacional dos Centros de Pósgraduação em Economia [Brazilian Association of Graduate Programs in Economics].
    3. K. Schoors & B. Van Der Tol, 2002. "Foreign direct investment spillovers within and between sectors: Evidence from Hungarian data," Working Papers of Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Ghent University, Belgium 02/157, Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration.
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