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Ecuaciones de Mincer y las Tasas de Retorno a la Educación en Chile: 1990-1998

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  • Claudio Sapelli

    ()
    (Instituto de Economía. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile.)

Abstract

Este trabajo, utilizando las encuestas CASEN de 1990 y 1998, investiga la evolución de la tasa de retorno a la educación según los supuestos tradicionales de Mincer y su robustez al cumplimiento de varios de los supuestos detrás de las ecuaciones de Mincer. Los resultados muestran la conveniencia de levantar el supuesto de linealidad en escolaridad de las ecuaciones de Mincer y modelar en forma más desagregada el nivel de escolaridad alcanzado. Se observa que la tasa de retorno es creciente con el nivel de escolaridad y se observan también marcados premios a la obtención de títulos (efecto sheepskin), en particular para la educación media y terciaria. Esta evidencia resalta la función de la educación como fuente de señales para el mercado laboral y viene a complementar la tesis básica de la teoría del capital humano. También se observa una varianza en el tiempo según la calidad de la educación (medida por el gasto total en educación), aunque el efecto es pequeño. A su vez se verifican diferencias de considerar cohortes sintéticas a partir de información en corte transversal (tal como la que usualmente se tiene y que se utiliza en la estimación de ecuaciones de Mincer), respecto al seguimiento de cohortes a través del tiempo. El supuesto de expectativas estáticas implícito en el método de Mincer es particularmente engañoso en períodos de grandes cambios, cuando dichos cambios son a su vez, predecibles. En el caso de los noventa en Chile, un período de alto crecimiento, el supuesto de expectativas estáticas contribuye a imputar una tasa de retorno con una sustancial subestimación a la tasa de retorno obtenida efectivamente.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Instituto de Economia. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile. in its series Documentos de Trabajo with number 254.

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Date of creation: 2003
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Handle: RePEc:ioe:doctra:254

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  1. Heckman, James J. & Lochner, Lance John & Todd, Petra E., 2003. "Fifty Years of Mincer Earnings Regressions," IZA Discussion Papers 775, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  2. Hanushek, Eric A, 1986. "The Economics of Schooling: Production and Efficiency in Public Schools," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 24(3), pages 1141-77, September.
  3. James Heckman & Lance Lochner & Christopher Taber, 1998. "Explaining Rising Wage Inequality: Explanations With A Dynamic General Equilibrium Model of Labor Earnings With Heterogeneous Agents," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 1(1), pages 1-58, January.
  4. Beyer, Harald & Rojas, Patricio & Vergara, Rodrigo, 1999. "Trade liberalization and wage inequality," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 59(1), pages 103-123, June.
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Cited by:
  1. Loreto Reyes & Jorge Rodríguez & Sergio S. Urzúa, 2013. "Heterogeneous Economic Returns to Postsecondary Degrees: Evidence from Chile," NBER Working Papers 18817, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Joseph Ramos & David Coble & Ricardo Elfernan & Claudia Soto, 2013. "The Impact of Cognitive and Noncognitive Skills on Professional Salaries in An Emerging Economy, C hile," The Developing Economies, Institute of Developing Economies, vol. 51(1), pages 1-33, 03.

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