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Insuficiencias de innovación

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  • William Maloney
  • Andrés Rodríguez-Clare

Abstract

(Disponible en idioma inglés únicamente) Existe la idea corriente de que la baja productividad o un nivel bajo de crecimiento se deben a lo que cabría describir de `insuficiencia de innovación`, que usualmente se identifica como un nivel de inversión en investigación y desarrollo inferior al de algunos países altamente innovadores. La reacción usual a esta situación, que se percibe como un problema, es proponer una mayor inversión en investigación y desarrollo, por lo general, especificando una meta que puede llegar a ser de hasta tres por ciento del PIB. El problema de este análisis es que no toma en cuenta que un nivel bajo de inversión en investigación y desarrollo puede ser apropiado según el patrón de especialización de una economía dada, o puede simplemente ser una manifestación de problemas más generales que entorpezcan la acumulación de toda clase de capital. ¿Cuándo sufre un país las insuficiencias de innovación más allá de las que cabría esperar según sus patrones de especialización y acumulación? Ésta es la cuestión que se analiza en este trabajo. En primer lugar, se muestra una manera sencilla de calcular la brecha de investigación y desarrollo que cabe atribuir al patrón de especialización de un país, y se presenta el caso de Chile como ejemplo pertinente. El análisis demuestra que si bien la especialización de Chile en sectores con un uso intensivo de recursos naturales explica en parte la brecha en investigación y desarrollo, sigue habiendo una insuficiencia considerable. En segundo lugar, se muestra cómo se puede emplear un modelo calibrado para determinar la brecha de investigación y desarrollo que cabría esperar según la inversión de un país en capital físico y humano. Si la brecha real en investigación y desarrollo es mayor que la brecha anticipada, el país sufre de un verdadero déficit de innovación.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department in its series Research Department Publications with number 4430.

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Date of creation: Dec 2005
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Handle: RePEc:idb:wpaper:4430

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  1. Soledad Arellano & Matías Braun-Llona, 1999. "Rentabilidad de la Educación Formal en Chile," Latin American Journal of Economics-formerly Cuadernos de Economía, Instituto de Economía. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile., Instituto de Economía. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile., vol. 36(107), pages 685-724.
  2. Andrés Rodríguez-Clare, 2005. "Clusters and Comparative Advantage: Implications for Industrial Policy," IDB Publications 6830, Inter-American Development Bank.
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  9. Hall, Bronwyn & Van Reenen, John, 2000. "How effective are fiscal incentives for R&D? A review of the evidence," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 29(4-5), pages 449-469, April.
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  13. Howitt, Peter & Mayer-Foulkes, David, 2005. "R&D, Implementation, and Stagnation: A Schumpeterian Theory of Convergence Clubs," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 37(1), pages 147-77, February.
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