A Comparison of Unit Price and Fixed Price Contracts for Infrastructure Construction Projects
AbstractToday’s dominant mechanism for infrastructure project tendering is the Unit Price Contract (UPC). While the winning bidder retains risk related to the unit price bids submitted, the Principal carries all risk related to misspecification of the activities required for having a project build. This paper reviews the microeconomic foundations for this contracting procedure and identifies situations where an alternative mechanism, Design – Build (DB) contracts, may be preferable. DB leaves the bulk of project risk with the agent and therefore requires bidders to hedge against unpleasant surprises in the implementation by increasing the demand for compensation for undertaking the job. It is argued that DB should not be used if the number of bidders is expected to be large; this is a means for reducing the duplication of design costs. Moreover, DB projects should be complex with respect to the number of sub-tasks required for construction and it should be feasible to substitute one input for another. This is a way for society to benefit from the agent’s superior information about alternative implementation techniques and relative input prices. The projects should moreover not include too many unobservable quality features and the risks for geotechnical problems should be manageable.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Swedish National Road & Transport Research Institute (VTI) in its series Working Papers with number 2010:13.
Length: 21 pages
Date of creation: 01 Dec 2010
Date of revision:
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Postal: VTI, Transport Economics, P.O. Box 6056, SE-171 06 Solna, Sweden
Phone: +46-13-20 40 00
Fax: +46-13-14 14 36
Web page: http://www.vti.se/tek
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Procurement; Unit Price Contracts; Design build; Infrastructure;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- H57 - Public Economics - - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies - - - Procurement
- L98 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Transportation and Utilities - - - Government Policy
- R42 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Transportation Systems - - - Government and Private Investment Analysis; Road Maintenance; Transportation Planning
- R48 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Transportation Systems - - - Government Pricing and Policy
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2010-12-11 (All new papers)
- NEP-CTA-2010-12-11 (Contract Theory & Applications)
- NEP-PPM-2010-12-11 (Project, Program & Portfolio Management)
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- Nilsson, Jan-Eric, 2012. "Procurement and contract design in the construction industry: … not one size fits all," Working papers in Transport Economics 2012:26, CTS - Centre for Transport Studies Stockholm (KTH and VTI).
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