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The Direction of Causality Between Blockholder Ownership and Firm Value: US and EU Evidence

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Author Info

  • Pedersen, Torben

    (Department of International Economics and Management, Copenhagen Business School)

  • Thomsen, Steen

    (Department of International Economics and Management, Copenhagen Business School)

  • Kvist, Hans Kurt

    (The Statistics Group, Copenhagen Business School)

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    Abstract

    We examine the causal relationship between blockholder ownership (measured by the fraction of shares controlled by large shareholders) and firm value (measured as the simple Tobin's Q) of the largest EU and US companies. Using Granger causality tests we find no significant causal effects either way in the US/UK, but in continental Europe we find a negative effect of blockholder ownership on firm value and a negative effect of firm value on blockholder ownership. Consistent with an overall non-linear relationship, as hypothesised by Morck, Shleifer and Vishny (1988) and Stultz (1988), the negative effect of blockholder ownership on firm value performance is found to be significant only for companies with high initial levels of blockholder ownership (> 10%), but insignificant for companies with low initial levels. Consistent with lower protection of minority investors and larger private benefits of control (Shleifer and Vishny, 1997) the causal relationships are only significant in continental Europe, even for high initial levels of blockholder ownership.

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    File URL: http://openarchive.cbs.dk/handle/10398/6523
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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Copenhagen Business School, Department of International Economics and Management in its series Working Papers with number 16-2001.

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    Length: 39 pages
    Date of creation: 12 Jun 2001
    Date of revision:
    Handle: RePEc:hhb:cbsint:2001-016

    Contact details of provider:
    Postal: Department of International Economics and Management, Copenhagen Business School, Howitzvej 60, DK-2000 Frederiksberg, Denmark
    Phone: +45 3815 2515
    Fax: +45 3815 2500
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    Web page: http://www.cbs.dk/departments/int/
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    Related research

    Keywords: Blockholder ownership; Firm value; Europe; Firm objectives;

    References

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    1. Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer & Robert Vishny, 1999. "Investor Protection and Corporate Valuation," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1882, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
    2. Demsetz, Harold & Lehn, Kenneth, 1985. "The Structure of Corporate Ownership: Causes and Consequences," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 93(6), pages 1155-77, December.
    3. Stulz, ReneM., 1988. "Managerial control of voting rights : Financing policies and the market for corporate control," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(1-2), pages 25-54, January.
    4. Cubbin, John S & Leech, Dennis, 1983. "The Effect of Shareholding Dispersion on the Degree of Control in British Companies: Theory and Measurement," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 93(37), pages 351-69, June.
    5. Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopez-De-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer, 1999. "Corporate Ownership Around the World," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 54(2), pages 471-517, 04.
    6. Mehran, Hamid, 1995. "Executive compensation structure, ownership, and firm performance," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 38(2), pages 163-184, June.
    7. Andrei Shleifer & Robert W. Vishny, 1996. "A Survey of Corporate Governance," NBER Working Papers 5554, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    8. Myers, Stewart C. & Majluf, Nicholas S., 1984. "Corporate financing and investment decisions when firms have information that investors do not have," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 187-221, June.
    9. Kee H. Chung & Stephen W. Pruitt, 1994. "A Simple Approximation of Tobin's q," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 23(3), Fall.
    10. Loderer, Claudio & Martin, Kenneth, 1997. "Executive stock ownership and performance Tracking faint traces," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 45(2), pages 223-255, August.
    11. Jensen, Michael C. & Meckling, William H., 1976. "Theory of the firm: Managerial behavior, agency costs and ownership structure," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 305-360, October.
    12. Torben Pedersen & Steen Thomsen, 1999. "Economic and Systemic Explanations of Ownership Concentration among Europe's Largest Companies," International Journal of the Economics of Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 6(3), pages 367-381.
    13. Himmelberg, C.P. & Hubbard, R.G. & Palia, D., 1997. "Understanding the Determinants of Mangerial Ownership and the Link Between Ownership and Performance," Papers 97-21, Columbia - Graduate School of Business.
    14. Demsetz, Harold & Villalonga, Belen, 2001. "Ownership structure and corporate performance," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 7(3), pages 209-233, September.
    15. Barclay, Michael J. & Holderness, Clifford G., 1989. "Private benefits from control of public corporations," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(2), pages 371-395, December.
    16. Morck, Randall & Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W., 1988. "Management ownership and market valuation : An empirical analysis," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(1-2), pages 293-315, January.
    17. Granger, C W J, 1969. "Investigating Causal Relations by Econometric Models and Cross-Spectral Methods," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 37(3), pages 424-38, July.
    18. Torben Pedersen & Steen Thomsen, 1997. "European Patterns of Corporate Ownership: A Twelve-Country Study," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 28(4), pages 759-778, December.
    19. Bergstrom, Clas & Rydqvist, Kristian, 1990. "The determinants of corporate ownership : An empirical study on Swedish data," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 14(2-3), pages 237-253, August.
    20. McConnell, John J. & Servaes, Henri, 1990. "Additional evidence on equity ownership and corporate value," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 595-612, October.
    21. Thomsen, Steen & Pedersen, Torben, 1998. "Industry and ownership structure," International Review of Law and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 385-402, December.
    22. Morck, Randall & Nakamura, Masao & Shivdasani, Anil, 2000. "Banks, Ownership Structure, and Firm Value in Japan," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 73(4), pages 539-67, October.
    23. Demsetz, Harold, 1983. "The Structure of Ownership and the Theory of the Firm," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 26(2), pages 375-90, June.
    24. Dilip K. Shome & Sudhir Singh, 1995. "Firm Value and External Blockholdings," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 24(4), Winter.
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