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La politique climatique change enfin de paradigme

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  • Michel Damian

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    (PACTE - Politiques publiques, ACtion politique, TErritoires - Institut d'Études Politiques [IEP] - Grenoble - CNRS : UMR5194 - Université Pierre-Mendès-France - Grenoble II - Université Joseph Fourier - Grenoble I)

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    Abstract

    L'économie standard de l'environnement et de l'effet de serre - centrée sur la théorie des prix au détriment d'une économie de la production - a fait perdre deux décennies à la compréhension de la question climatique et a, en quelque sorte, bloqué la réflexion sur les voies de la décarbonisation. L'action collective a été engagée en 1992 avec la signature de la Convention sur les changements climatiques, puis mise en œuvre dans le cadre du Protocole de Kyoto à partir de 1997. Elle était fondée sur deux piliers : 1) un accord multilatéral contraignant susceptible de s'imposer un jour à tous les Etats et, 2) un marché international des gaz à effet de serre susceptible de minimiser le coût total de la réduction des émissions. Cette architecture " par le haut " est aujourd'hui dans une impasse. La thèse soutenue est que la politique pour préserver le climat change de paradigme. La nouvelle approche se focalise sur la production. Elle prend la forme d'une transition énergétique et industrielle de longue durée, très différemment envisagée d'un pays à l'autre. C'est une démarche " par le bas ", dans laquelle les politiques nationales, les réglementations, et les technologies à basse teneur en carbone, deviennent la pierre d'angle de la lutte contre le réchauffement. L'Accord climatique de Paris, qui devrait être signé en 2015, sera fondé sur les politiques nationales et entérinera ce changement de paradigme.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by HAL in its series Post-Print with number halshs-00969308.

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    Date of creation: 2014
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    Publication status: Published, Economie Appliquée, 2014, XVII, 1, 37-72
    Handle: RePEc:hal:journl:halshs-00969308

    Note: View the original document on HAL open archive server: http://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-00969308
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    Keywords: politique climatique ; historique;

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

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    Cited by:
    1. Michel Damian, 2014. "Conférence climatique de Paris 2015 : que peut la diplomatie française ?," Working Papers halshs-00990907, HAL.

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