The debate over the National Bank Act and the preemption of state efforts to regulate credit cards
AbstractThe National Bank Act (NBA), the 140- year-old statute that led to the creation of nationally chartered banks, has likely been one of the most influential forces in the formation and development of the U.S. credit card industry. The NBA gives nationally chartered banks a wide range of powers and protections. One of these protections, the ability to disregard certain state laws, is currently at the center of a very heated debate. The regulator of national banks, the OCC, recently issued a rule that interprets the act as essentially preempting most state efforts to protect credit card consumers. State attorneys general, consumer advocates, and members of Congress have charged that the OCC’s ruling is overly aggressive and results in bad public policy. This paper examines the current debate over preemption and its regulatory consequences. It analyzes how the expanding scope of preemption has affected the development of the credit card industry and the likely impact of the current debate on the industry’s future.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia in its series Payment Cards Center Discussion Paper with number 04-02.
Date of creation: 2004
Date of revision:
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2005-09-29 (All new papers)
- NEP-HIS-2005-09-29 (Business, Economic & Financial History)
- NEP-REG-2005-09-29 (Regulation)
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- Whalen, Gary W., 2008. "The impact of preemption of the Georgia Fair Lending Act by the OCC on national and state banks and the dual banking system," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 48(4), pages 772-791, November.
- John R. Walter, 2006. "The 3-6-3 rule : an urban myth?," Economic Quarterly, Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond, issue Win, pages 51-78.
- Chatterji, Aaron K. & Seamans, Robert C., 2012. "Entrepreneurial finance, credit cards, and race," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 106(1), pages 182-195.
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