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To surcharge or not to surcharge: an empirical investigation of ATM pricing

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  • Timothy H. Hannan
  • Elizabeth K. Kiser
  • Robin A. Prager
  • James J. McAndrews

Abstract

This paper investigates depository institutions' decisions whether or not to impose surcharges (direct usage fees) on non-depositors who use their ATMs. In addition to documenting patterns of surcharging, we examine motives for surcharging, including both direct generation of fee revenue and the potential to attract deposit customers who wish to avoid incurring surcharges at an institution's ATMs. Consistent with expectations, we find that the probability of surcharging increases with both the institution's share of market ATMs and the time since surcharging was first allowed in the state, and decreases with the local ATM density. Further, we find evidence consistent with the use of surcharges to attract deposit customers who are new to the local banking market, but find no evidence that larger banks use surcharges as a means to attract existing customers away from smaller local competitors.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.) in its series Finance and Economics Discussion Series with number 2001-38.

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Date of creation: 2001
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Handle: RePEc:fip:fedgfe:2001-38

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Keywords: Automated tellers ; Banks and banking - Service charges;

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References

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  1. Garth Saloner & Andrea Shepard, 1995. "Adoption of Technologies with Network Effects: An Empirical Examination of the Adoption of Teller Machines," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 26(3), pages 479-501, Autumn.
  2. Berger, Allen N & Hannan, Timothy H, 1989. "The Price-Concentration Relationship in Banking," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 71(2), pages 291-99, May.
  3. Steven Pilloff & Stephen Rhoades, 2000. "Do Large, Diversified Banking Organizations Have Competitive Advantages?," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer, vol. 16(3), pages 287-302, May.
  4. Robert B. Avery & Raphael W. Bostic & Paul S. Calem & Glenn B. Canner, 1997. "Changes in the distribution of banking offices," Federal Reserve Bulletin, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), issue Sep, pages 707-725.
  5. Robin Prager, 2001. "The Effects of ATM Surcharges on Small Banking Organizations," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer, vol. 18(2), pages 161-173, March.
  6. Steven D. Felgran & R. Edward Ferguson, 1986. "The evolution of retail EFT networks," New England Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, issue Jul, pages 42-56.
  7. Paul S. Calem & Gerald A. Carlino, 1989. "The concentration/conduct relationship in bank deposit markets," Working Papers 89-26, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
  8. Prager, Robin A & Hannan, Timothy H, 1998. "Do Substantial Horizontal Mergers Generate Significant Price Effects? Evidence from the Banking Industry," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 46(4), pages 433-52, December.
  9. James J. McAndrews, 1991. "The evolution of shared ATM networks," Business Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia, issue May, pages 3-16.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Christopher R. Knittel & Victor Stango, 2004. "Compatibility and Pricing with Indirect Network Effects: Evidence from ATMs," NBER Working Papers 10774, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Hannan, Timothy H., 2007. "ATM surcharge bans and bank market structure: The case of Iowa and its neighbors," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(4), pages 1061-1082, April.
  3. Knittel, Christopher R. & Stango, Victor, 2005. "Incompatibility, Product Attributes and Consumer Welfare: Evidence from ATMs," Department of Economics, Working Paper Series qt3d42z9rh, Department of Economics, Institute for Business and Economic Research, UC Berkeley.
  4. Christopher R. Knittel & Victor Stango, 2006. "Strategic Incompatibility in ATM Markets," Working Papers 06-08, NET Institute, revised Sep 2006.
  5. Fumiko Hayashi & Rick Sullivan & Stuart E. Weiner, 2006. "A guide to the ATM and debit card industry - 2006 update," Monograph, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, number 2006agttaadci2, December.
  6. Timothy H. Hannan & Ron Borzekowski, 2006. "Incompatibility and investment in ATM networks," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2006-36, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  7. Carbó Valverde Santiago & Massoud Nadia & Rodríguez-Fernández Francisco & Saunders Anthony & Scholnick Barry, 2007. "The Economics of Credit Cards, Debit Cards and ATMs: A Survey and Some New Evidence," Working Papers 201074, Fundacion BBVA / BBVA Foundation.
  8. Timothy H. Hannan & Robert M. Adams, 2011. "Consumer Switching Costs And Firm Pricing: Evidence From Bank Pricing Of Deposit Accounts," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 59(2), pages 296-320, 06.
  9. Humphrey, David B., 2010. "Retail payments: New contributions, empirical results, and unanswered questions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(8), pages 1729-1737, August.
  10. Kari Kemppainen, 2004. "Competition and regulation in European retail payment systems," Microeconomics 0404008, EconWPA.
  11. Fumiko Hayashi & Zhu Wang, 2009. "Product innovation and network survival in the U.S. ATM and debit card network industry," Research Working Paper RWP 08-14, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City.

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