Consolidating the Water Industry: An Analysis of the Potential Gains from Horizontal Integration in a Conditional Efficiency Framework
AbstractThe German potable water supply industry is regarded as being highly fragmented, thus inhibiting high potentials for efficiency improvements through consolidation. Focusing on a hypothetical restructuring of the industry, we apply Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to analyze the potential efficiency gains from mergers between water utilities at the county level. A conditional efficiency framework is used to account for the operating environment. Highest efficiency improvement potentials turn out to result from reducing individual inefficiencies. The majority of the 84 merger cases is characterized by merger gains, which are decomposed into a technical efficiency effect, a harmony effect and a scale effect. The results suggest to improve incentives for efficient operations in water supply and a consolidation of the industry structure.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research in its series Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin with number 1187.
Length: 33 p.
Date of creation: 2012
Date of revision:
Water Supply; Horizontal Integration; Data Envelopment Analysis; Conditional Efficiency; Nonparametric Estimation;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- C14 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Semiparametric and Nonparametric Methods: General
- L22 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Firm Organization and Market Structure
- L25 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Firm Performance
- L95 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Transportation and Utilities - - - Gas Utilities; Pipelines; Water Utilities
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Cinzia Daraio & Léopold Simar, 2005.
"Introducing Environmental Variables in Nonparametric Frontier Models: a Probabilistic Approach,"
Journal of Productivity Analysis,
Springer, vol. 24(1), pages 93-121, 09.
- Cinzia Daraio & Leopold Simar, 2003. "Introducing Environmental Variables in Nonparametric Frontier Models: a Probabilistic Approach," LEM Papers Series 2003/17, Laboratory of Economics and Management (LEM), Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, Pisa, Italy.
- Garcia, Serge & Moreaux, Michel & Reynaud, Arnaud, 2004.
"Measuring Economies of Vertical Integration in Network Industries: an Application to the Water Sector,"
IDEI Working Papers
255, Institut d'Économie Industrielle (IDEI), Toulouse.
- Garcia, Serge & Moreaux, Michel & Reynaud, Arnaud, 2007. "Measuring economies of vertical integration in network industries: An application to the water sector," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 25(4), pages 791-820, August.
- Kristof De Witte & Elbert Dijkgraaf, 2007. "Mean and Bold?," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 07-092/3, Tinbergen Institute.
- Kristof De Witte & Rui C. Marcques, 2008.
"Big and beautiful? On non-parametrically measuring scale economies in non-convex technologies,"
Center for Economic Studies - Discussion papers
ces0822, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Centrum voor Economische Studiën.
- Kristof Witte & Rui Marques, 2011. "Big and beautiful? On non-parametrically measuring scale economies in non-convex technologies," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 35(3), pages 213-226, June.
- Viton, Philip A., 1992. "Consolidations of scale and scope in urban transit," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 25-49, March.
- Massimo Filippini & Nevenka Hrovatin & Jelena Zorić, 2008. "Cost efficiency of Slovenian water distribution utilities: an application of stochastic frontier methods," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 29(2), pages 169-182, April.
- Tupper, Henrique Cesar & Resende, Marcelo, 2004. "Efficiency and regulatory issues in the Brazilian water and sewage sector: an empirical study," Utilities Policy, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 29-40, March.
- Rita Martins & Fernando Coelho & Adelino Fortunato, 2008.
"Water Losses and Hydrographical Regions Influence on the Cost Structure of the Portuguese Water Industry,"
GEMF Working Papers
2008-06, GEMF - Faculdade de Economia, Universidade de Coimbra.
- Rita Martins & Fernando Coelho & Adelino Fortunato, 2012. "Water losses and hydrographical regions influence on the cost structure of the Portuguese water industry," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 38(1), pages 81-94, August.
- Celine Nauges & Caroline van den Berg, 2010. "Heterogeneity in the Cost Structure of Water and Sanitation Services: A Cross-country Comparison of Conditions for Scale Economies," Oxford Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(2), pages 199-217.
- Bogetoft, Peter & Wang, Dexiang, 2003.
"Estimating the Potential Gains from Mergers,"
Unit of Economics Working papers
24213, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Food and Resource Economic Institute.
- Tristen Hayfield & Jeffrey S. Racine, . "Nonparametric Econometrics: The np Package," Journal of Statistical Software, American Statistical Association, vol. 27(i05).
- Léopold Simar & Paul W. Wilson, 1998.
"Sensitivity Analysis of Efficiency Scores: How to Bootstrap in Nonparametric Frontier Models,"
INFORMS, vol. 44(1), pages 49-61, January.
- Simar, L. & Wilson, P.W., . "Sensitivity analysis of efficiency scores: how to bootstrap in nonparametric frontier models," CORE Discussion Papers RP -1304, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
- SIMAR, Léopold & WILSON, Paul, 1995. "Sensitivity Analysis to Efficiency Scores : How to Bootstrap in Nonparametric Frontier Models," CORE Discussion Papers 1995043, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
- Walter, Matthias & Cullmann, Astrid & von Hirschhausen, Christian & Wand, Robert & Zschille, Michael, 2009. "Quo vadis efficiency analysis of water distribution? A comparative literature review," Utilities Policy, Elsevier, vol. 17(3-4), pages 225-232, September.
- Cinzia Daraio & Leopold Simar, 2005.
"Conditional Nonparametric Frontier Models for Convex and Non Convex Technologies: a Unifying Approach,"
LEM Papers Series
2005/12, Laboratory of Economics and Management (LEM), Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, Pisa, Italy.
- Cinzia Daraio & Léopold Simar, 2007. "Conditional nonparametric frontier models for convex and nonconvex technologies: a unifying approach," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 28(1), pages 13-32, October.
- Michael Zschille & Matthias Walter, 2012.
"The performance of German water utilities: a (semi)-parametric analysis,"
Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 44(29), pages 3749-3764, October.
- Michael Zschille & Matthias Walter, 2011. "The Performance of German Water Utilities: A (Semi)-Parametric Analysis," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 1118, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
- Bottasso, Anna & Conti, Maurizio, 2009. "Scale economies, technology and technical change in the water industry: Evidence from the English water only sector," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(2), pages 138-147, March.
- Maria Corton, 2011. "Sector fragmentation and aggregation of service provision in the water industry," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 35(2), pages 159-169, April.
- Antonioli, B. & Filippini, M., 2001. "The use of a variable cost function in the regulation of the Italian water industry," Utilities Policy, Elsevier, vol. 10(3-4), pages 181-187.
- Torres, Marcelo & Morrison Paul, Catherine J., 2006. "Driving forces for consolidation or fragmentation of the US water utility industry: A cost function approach with endogenous output," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 59(1), pages 104-120, January.
- Thanassoulis, Emmanuel, 2000. "The use of data envelopment analysis in the regulation of UK water utilities: Water distribution," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 126(2), pages 436-453, October.
- Marques, Rui Cunha & De Witte, Kristof, 2011. "Is big better? On scale and scope economies in the Portuguese water sector," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 28(3), pages 1009-1016, May.
- Andres Picazo-Tadeo & Francisco Saez-Fernandez & Francisco Gonzalez-Gomez, 2009. "The role of environmental factors in water utilities' technical efficiency. Empirical evidence from Spanish companies," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 41(5), pages 615-628.
- Saal David S. & Arocena Pablo & Maziotis Alexandros & Triebs Thomas, 2013. "Scale and Scope Economies and the Efficient Vertical and Horizontal Configuration of the Water Industry: A Survey of the Literature," Review of Network Economics, De Gruyter, vol. 12(1), pages 93-129, March.
- Takuya Urakami & David Parker, 2011. "The Effects of Consolidation amongst Japanese Water Utilities: A Hedonic Cost Function Analysis," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 48(13), pages 2805-2825, October.
- Troels Kristensen & Peter Bogetoft & Kjeld Pedersen, 2010. "Potential gains from hospital mergers in Denmark," Health Care Management Science, Springer, vol. 13(4), pages 334-345, December.
- Serge Garcia & Alban Thomas, 2001. "The Structure of Municipal Water Supply Costs: Application to a Panel of French Local Communities," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 16(1), pages 5-29, July.
- Bhattacharyya, Arunava & Harris, Thomas R. & Narayanan, Rangesan & Raffiee, Kambiz, 1995. "Specification and estimation of the effect of ownership on the economic efficiency of the water utilities," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(6), pages 759-784, December.
- Christian von Hirschhausen & Astrid Cullmann & Matthias Walter & Michael Zschille, 2009. "Fallende Preise in der Wasserwirtschaft: Hessen auf dem Vormarsch," DIW Wochenbericht, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research, vol. 76(10), pages 150-155.
- Paola Fabbri & Giovanni Fraquelli, 2000. "Costs and Structure of Technology in the Italian Water Industry," Empirica, Springer, vol. 27(1), pages 65-82, March.
- Fumitoshi Mizutani & Takuya Urakami, 2001. "articles: Identifying network density and scale economies for Japanese water supply organizations," Papers in Regional Science, Springer, vol. 80(2), pages 211-230.
- David Saal & David Parker & Tom Weyman-Jones, 2007. "Determining the contribution of technical change, efficiency change and scale change to productivity growth in the privatized English and Welsh water and sewerage industry: 1985–2000," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 28(1), pages 127-139, October.
- Necmiddin Bagdadioglu & Catherine Waddams Price & Thomas Weyman-Jones, 2007. "Measuring Potential Gains from Mergers among Electricity Distribution Companies in Turkey using a Non-Parametric Model," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 2), pages 83-110.
- repec:ccp:journl:v:23:y:2003:i:5:p:137-149 is not listed on IDEAS
- Takuya Urakami, 2005. "Identifying scale economies for different types of water supply organizations in Japan," ERSA conference papers ersa05p370, European Regional Science Association.
- Youn Kim, H. & Clark, Robert M., 1988. "Economies of scale and scope in water supply," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 479-502, November.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Bibliothek).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.