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Adaptive Centering with Random Effects: An Alternative to the Fixed Effects Model for Studying Time-Varying Treatments in School Settings

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  • Stephen W. Raudenbush

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    (Department of Sociology, University of Chicago)

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    Abstract

    Fixed effects models are often useful in longitudinal studies when the goal is to assess the impact of teacher or school characteristics on student learning. In this article, I introduce an alternative procedure: adaptive centering with random effects. I show that this procedure can replicate the fixed effects analysis while offering several comparative advantages: the incorporation into standard errors of multiple levels of clustering; the modeling of heterogeneity of treatment effects; the estimation of effects of treatments at multiple levels; and computational simplicity. After illustrating these ideas in a simple setting, the article formulates a general linear model with adaptive centering and random effects and derives efficient estimates and standard errors. The results apply to studies that have an arbitrary number of nested and cross-classified factors such as time, students, classrooms, schools, districts, or states. © 2009 American Education Finance Association

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    File URL: http://www.mitpressjournals.org/doi/pdf/10.1162/edfp.2009.4.4.468
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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by MIT Press in its journal Education Finance and Policy.

    Volume (Year): 4 (2009)
    Issue (Month): 4 (October)
    Pages: 468-491

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    Handle: RePEc:tpr:edfpol:v:4:y:2009:i:4:p:468-491

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    Web page: http://mitpress.mit.edu/journals/

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    Related research

    Keywords: fixed effects models; adaptive centering; time-varying treatments;

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