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Economic Geography and Contemporary Rural Dynamics: An Empirical Test on Some French Regions

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  • Bertrand Schmitt
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    Abstract

    SCHMITT B. (1999) Economic geography and contemporary rural dynamics: an empirical test on some French regions, Reg. Studies 33 , 697-711. This paper presents an economic geography framework used to account for rural population and employment changes. Besides agglomerative forces, these models introduce factors which induce household or firm dispersion that are identified as operative in rural areas. Population dispersion can be the outcome of increased urban land rents. Comparative advantages can affect the location of land-related activities. Technological externalities may lead to the dispersion of specific industrial sectors; and, job increases attract new residents, leading to the dispersion of some firms. We show that all these factors do not act at the same level, and a distinction can be made between forces acting within labour market areas and those acting between labour market areas. A simultaneous equation system is built to model the effect of these forces on population and job changes. It distinguishes different categories of population and jobs. Empirical estimation is based on data from six selected French regions and shows important differences between the forces at work at each level of analysis. SCHMITT B. (1999) Economie geographique et dynamique contemporaine des espaces ruraux: un essai de test empirique sur quelques regions francaises, Reg. Studies 33 , 697-711. L'article s'appuie sur les travaux recents de l'economie geographique, en vue d'expliquer les dynamiques rurales d'emploi et de population. A cote des forces entrainant l'agglomeration des populations et des activites, ces modeles integrent des facteurs qui, au contraire, induisent la dispersion. Certains sont consideres comme etant a l' m uvre dans les dynamiques rurales contemporaines, l'accroissement des prix fonciers urbains entrainant une dispersion de la population, des avantages comparatifs jouant sur la localisation d'activites liees au sol et des externalites technologiques entrainant la dispersion de certaines industries. En outre, la dispersion des emplois attirent la population dont la dispersion induit une certaine dispersion des firmes distributrices. L'analyse montre que ces facteurs ne jouent pas tous a la meme echelle et qu'il y a lieu de distinguer les forces a l' m uvre au sein des bassins d'emplois et celles qui jouent entre bassins d'emploi. Un modele a equations simultanees reliant evolution de la population et evolution des emplois et distinguant plusieurs categories de population et d'emploi, est construit et teste sur des donnees provenant de six regions francaises. Les estimations montrent d'importantes differences dans les forces a l' m uvre a chaque niveau d'analyse. SCHMITT B. (1999) Wirtschaftsgeographie und gegenwartige Dynamik landlicher Gebiete: eine empirische Prufung ausgewahlter franzosischer Regionen, Reg. Studies 33 , 697- 711. Dieser Aufsatz legt einen wirtschaftsgeographischen Rahmen vor, der dazu benutzt wird, Veranderungen in der landlichen Bevolkerung und im Arbeitsmarkt zu erklaren. Ausser agglomerativen Kraften stellen diese Modelle Faktoren vor, die Haushalts- oder Firmenstreuung bewirken, die als entscheidend fur landliche Gebiete erkannt werden. Bevolkerungsstreuung kann das Ergebnis ansteigender stadtischer Grundstuckspreise sein. Verhaltnismassige Vorteile konnen sich auf die Standorte landbezogener Tatigkeiten auswirken. Technologische Aussenfaktoren konnen zur Aufsplitterung spezifischer Industriesektoren fuhren. Daruberhinaus konnen Stellenangebote neue Einwohner anlocken, was wiederum zur Zersplitterung von Firmen fuhrt. Es wird gezeigt, das all diese Faktoren nicht auf der gleichen Ebene wirken, und es ist moglich, einen Unterschied zwischen Kraften festzustellen, die in einem Arbeitsmarktgebiet, und jenen, die zwischen Arbeitsmarktgebieten auftreten. Es wird ein Simultangleichungssystem aufgestellt, um die Auswirkung dieser Krafte auf Bevolkerung und Arbeitsplatzwechsel darzustellen. Es unterscheidet zwischen verschiedenen Bevolkerungs- und Beschaftigungskategorien. Empirische Schatzungen stutzen sich auf Daten von sechs ausgewahlten franzosischen Regionen, und zeigen bedeutende Unterschiede zwischen den Kraftenauf, die auf jeder Ebene der Analyse vorkommen.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Taylor & Francis Journals in its journal Regional Studies.

    Volume (Year): 33 (2000)
    Issue (Month): 8 ()
    Pages: 697-711

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    Handle: RePEc:taf:regstd:v:33:y:2000:i:8:p:697-711

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    Related research

    Keywords: Economic Geography; Rural Areas; Population And Employment Change; Simultaneous Equation;

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    Cited by:
    1. Gerke Hoogstra & Jouke Van Dijk & Raymond J.G.M. Florax, 2005. "Do jobs follow people or people follow jobs? A meta-analysis of Carlino-Mills studies," ERSA conference papers ersa05p737, European Regional Science Association.
    2. Aurélie Cassette & Sonia Paty, 2006. "La concurrence fiscale entre communes est-elle plus intense en milieu urbain qu’en milieu rural ?," Cahiers d'Economie et Sociologie Rurales, INRA Department of Economics, vol. 78, pages 5-30.

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