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Estimating the expropriation of minority shareholders: Results from a new empirical approach

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  • Jose Guedes
  • Gilberto Loureiro
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    Abstract

    A novel methodological approach is proposed to estimate the effect of separation of ownership and control by dominant shareholders on firm value. The approach offers two major innovations. First, it frees the researcher from the necessity of having to make an ad hoc judgment call regarding which firms feature entrenched owners and which don't. Under this approach, the main shareholder becomes entrenched when the Shapley Value (SV) of his voting rights crosses an unknown threshold that is estimated jointly with the other model parameters. This approach allows one to perform a test on the joint hypotheses that the incentive to expropriate held by the dominant shareholder impacts negatively the market performance of the firm if the main shareholder is entrenched but produces no impact otherwise. Secondly, it generates a market-based estimate of the critical level of power at which the main shareholder becomes entrenched. The method is applied to a sample of European firms and a threshold equal to 0.34 is estimated. Most firms from the UK have a main shareholder with a SV below the estimated threshold; in contrast, about half of the continental firms in the sample feature main shareholders whose power index is above the estimated threshold. A negative relationship is found between the incentive to expropriate and corporate valuation above the threshold, that is both statistically and economically significant; below the threshold, we find no evidence of a relationship.

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    File URL: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13518470500459972
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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Taylor & Francis Journals in its journal The European Journal of Finance.

    Volume (Year): 12 (2006)
    Issue (Month): 5 ()
    Pages: 421-448

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    Handle: RePEc:taf:eurjfi:v:12:y:2006:i:5:p:421-448

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    Related research

    Keywords: Dominant shareholder; ownership; control; market performance; Shapley Value;

    References

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    1. Demsetz, Harold & Villalonga, Belen, 2001. "Ownership structure and corporate performance," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 7(3), pages 209-233, September.
    2. Demsetz, Harold & Lehn, Kenneth, 1985. "The Structure of Corporate Ownership: Causes and Consequences," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 93(6), pages 1155-77, December.
    3. McConnell, John J. & Servaes, Henri, 1990. "Additional evidence on equity ownership and corporate value," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 595-612, October.
    4. Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer & Robert Vishny, 1999. "Investor Protection and Corporate Valuation," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1882, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
    5. Morck, Randall & Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W., 1988. "Management ownership and market valuation : An empirical analysis," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(1-2), pages 293-315, January.
    6. Zingales, Luigi, 1994. "The Value of the Voting Right: A Study of the Milan Stock Exchange Experience," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 7(1), pages 125-48.
    7. Burkart, Mike & Gromb, Denis & Panunzi, Fausto, 1997. "Large Shareholders, Monitoring, and the Value of the Firm," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 112(3), pages 693-728, August.
    8. Stijn Claessens & Simeon Djankov & Joseph P. H. Fan & Larry H. P. Lang, 2002. "Disentangling the Incentive and Entrenchment Effects of Large Shareholdings," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(6), pages 2741-2771, December.
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    Cited by:
    1. Jose Guedes & Gilberto Loureiro, 2007. "Controlling vs. Minority Shareholders: is There Expropriation? An Empirical Analysis of the Stock Price Performance of European Companies," CESifo DICE Report, Ifo Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 5(1), pages 16-21, 05.

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