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Valeurs et prix de production. Le cas des productions jointes

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  • Dominique Levy
  • Gérard Dumenil
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    Abstract

    [fre] Les systèmes de prix de production fondés sur le formalisme des productions jointes posent encore aux économistes de nombreux problèmes. On sait que, dans ces hypothèses, les prix et les valeurs auxquels conduit la résolution des équations, ne sont pas nécessairement positifs. Dans certains cas, l'existence de prix de pro­production positifs s'associe à celle des valeurs négatives. Ces résultats ont donc été à l'origine de nouvelles attaques contre la théorie de la valeur travail. Cet article propose en premier lieu une formulation rigoureuse des conditions de la positivité des valeurs et des prix, par rapport à une logique unificatrice de supériorité ou d'infériorité des procédés de production, que nous nommons « sur­classement ».. Sur cette base, un retour aux concepts fondamentaux permet d'écarter la notion de valeur négative, comme non pertinente. La négativité n'est jamais le fait de la valeur au sens du travail incorporé, mais le symptôme de l'impossibilité de l'affectation du travail à des biens que le système ne peut pas obtenir comme produit net.. Du point de vue des prix de production, on substitue à l'idée de prix négatifs celle des limites de l'aptitude d'une technique à la concurrence : parmi tous les systèmes de prix concevables, aucun ne garantit l'égale rémunération des travaux, d'une part, et des capitaux, d'autre part.. On montre enfin que, face à une telle situation, le processus concurrentiel tend lui-même à rétablir les conditions de l'uniformité des taux de profit, en désignant par leur défaut de rentabilité les procédés inférieurs responsables des « surclas­sements » indiqués précédemment. Sont ainsi créées les conditions de leur élimination. [eng] defined as « embodied labour ». Negativity appears to be a symptom of the impossible allocation of labour to commodities where these cannot be obtained as net output of the system.. As far as production prices are concerned, we substituted the idea of competitive process limits for the concept of negative prices : of all the conceivable price Systems, none lead simultaneously to an equal remuneration of workers, on the one hand, and capitalists, on the other.. Eventually we established that when faced with this kind of situation the competitive process itself works out the conditions for a general rate of profit. Inferior productive processes, previously responsible for « outclassment », are designated by a lack of profitabilite leading to their elimination.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Revue économique.

    Volume (Year): 33 (1982)
    Issue (Month): 1 ()
    Pages: 30-70

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    Handle: RePEc:prs:reveco:reco_0035-2764_1982_num_33_1_408642

    Note: DOI:10.2307/3501460
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    Web page: http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/revue/reco

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