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Instruments économiques dans la perspective du changement climatique

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  • Laurence Tubiana
  • Claude Henry
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    Abstract

    [fre] Les engagements de réduction des émissions de gaz à effet de serre, pris en 1997 à Kyoto, sans être suffisants au regard des menaces de changement climatique, sont déjà à ce point contraignants pour l'Union européenne et les États-Unis qu'ils risqueraient fort d'être reniés s'ils n'étaient pas mis en œuvre avec le maximum d'efficacité économique. Et ceci n'est possible que si sont mobilisés des instruments permettant une mise en œuvre flexible - tout en restant rigoureuse - de façon à réaliser le moindre coût global en égalisant approximativement les coûts marginaux de réduction des divers émetteurs. Nous examinons dans cet article les divers instruments impliqués dans les négociations internationales - en particulier les permis (ou droits) d'émission négociables - et l'articulation entre eux. Comme les pays en développement vont progressivement prendre rang parmi les principaux pays émetteurs, il est indispensable de les associer à part entière à la mise en œuvre efficace des instruments. Mais une telle association n'est concevable qu'autant que soient satisfaites des conditions d'équité dans la distribution initiale (c'est-à-dire avant transactions) des droits ; négligées à Kyoto, ces conditions sont au cœur des négociations en cours, notamment à La Haye en novembre 2000. [eng] Economic Instruments for Climate Change by Claude Henry and Laurence Tubiana . The 1997 Kyoto commitments to reduce greenhouse gas emissions are not enough to contend with the threats of climate change. Yet they already place such constraints on the European Union and the United States that they may well be renounced if they are not implemented with the greatest economic efficiency. This is only possible if instruments are mobilised to flexibly, but rigorously, implement these reductions at the lowest possible overall cost by more or less balancing out the different emitters' marginal reduction costs. . In this paper, we study the various instruments - especially emissions trading - addressed by the international negotiations and how they are interlinked. Since the developing countries will gradually rank among the leading emitting countries, it is vital that they play a fully-fledged part in the efficient implementation of the instruments. Yet such participation is only feasible if the conditions of equity in the initial permit distribution (i.e. before trading) are satisfied. These conditions were overlooked in Kyoto, but are a core issue in the current negotiations, especially for The Hague in November 2000.

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    File URL: http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.3406/ecop.2000.6001
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    File URL: http://www.persee.fr/articleAsPDF/ecop_0249-4744_2000_num_143_2_6001/ecop_0249-4744_2000_num_143_2_6001.pdf?mode=light
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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Économie & prévision.

    Volume (Year): 143 (2000)
    Issue (Month): 2 ()
    Pages: 1-14

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    Handle: RePEc:prs:ecoprv:ecop_0249-4744_2000_num_143_2_6001

    Note: DOI:10.3406/ecop.2000.6001
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    Web page: http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/revue/ecop

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