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How Firms Respond to Business Cycles: The Role of Firm Age and Firm Size

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  • Teresa C Fort
  • John Haltiwanger
  • Ron S Jarmin
  • Javier Miranda

Abstract

There remains considerable debate in the theoretical and empirical literature about the differences in the cyclical dynamics of firms by firm size. This paper contributes to the debate in two ways. First, the key distinction between firm size and firm age is introduced. The evidence presented in this paper shows that young businesses (that are typically small) exhibit very different cyclical dynamics than small/older businesses. The second contribution is to present evidence and explore explanations for the finding that young/small businesses were hit especially hard in the Great Recession. The collapse in housing prices accounts for a significant part of the large decline of young/small businesses in the Great Recession.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Palgrave Macmillan in its journal IMF Economic Review.

Volume (Year): 61 (2013)
Issue (Month): 3 (August)
Pages: 520-559

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Handle: RePEc:pal:imfecr:v:61:y:2013:i:3:p:520-559

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References

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  1. Vladimir Yankov & Egon Zakrajsek & Simon Gilchrist, 2009. "Credit Market Shocks and Economic Fluctuations: Evidence from Corporate Bond and Stock Markets," 2009 Meeting Papers 514, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  2. Randy A. Becker & John Haltiwanger, 2006. "Micro and Macro Data Integration: The Case of Capital," NBER Chapters, in: A New Architecture for the U.S. National Accounts, pages 541-610 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. James H. Stock & Mark W. Watson, 2001. "Forecasting output and inflation: the role of asset prices," Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, issue Mar.
  4. John C. Haltiwanger & Ron S. Jarmin & Javier Miranda, 2010. "Who Creates Jobs? Small vs. Large vs. Young," NBER Working Papers 16300, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Mark Doms & Eric J. Bartelsman, 2000. "Understanding Productivity: Lessons from Longitudinal Microdata," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 38(3), pages 569-594, September.
  6. Atif Mian & Amir Sufi, 2011. "House Prices, Home Equity-Based Borrowing, and the US Household Leverage Crisis," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 101(5), pages 2132-56, August.
  7. Arellano, Manuel & Bover, Olympia, 1995. "Another look at the instrumental variable estimation of error-components models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 29-51, July.
  8. Erik Hurst & Benjamin Wild Pugsley, 2011. "What Do Small Businesses Do?," NBER Working Papers 17041, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. Stephen Davis & John Haltiwanger & Ron Jarmin & Javier Miranda, 2006. "Volatility and Dispersion in Business Growth Rates: Publicly Traded Versus Privately Held Firms," Working Papers 06-17, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
  10. Love, Inessa & Zicchino, Lea, 2006. "Financial development and dynamic investment behavior: Evidence from panel VAR," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 46(2), pages 190-210, May.
  11. Aghion, Philippe & Howitt, Peter, 2006. "Appropriate Growth Policy: A Unifying Framework," Scholarly Articles 4554121, Harvard University Department of Economics.
  12. Chad Syverson, 2010. "What Determines Productivity?," NBER Working Papers 15712, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  13. Jovanovic, Boyan, 1982. "Selection and the Evolution of Industry," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(3), pages 649-70, May.
  14. Albert Saiz, 2010. "The Geographic Determinants of Housing Supply," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 125(3), pages 1253-1296, August.
  15. Fabien Postel-Vinay & Giuseppe Moscarini, 2008. "The Timing of Labor Market Expansions: New Facts and a New Hypothesis," 2008 Meeting Papers 326, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  16. Manuel Adelino & Antoinette Schoar & Felipe Severino, 2013. "House Prices, Collateral and Self-Employment," NBER Working Papers 18868, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  17. Hopenhayn, Hugo A, 1992. "Entry, Exit, and Firm Dynamics in Long Run Equilibrium," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 60(5), pages 1127-50, September.
  18. Ron S Jarmin & Javier Miranda, 2002. "The Longitudinal Business Database," Working Papers 02-17, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Hethey-Maier, Tanja & Schmieder, Johannes F., 2013. "Does the Use of Worker Flows Improve the Analysis of Establishment Turnover? Evidence from German Administrative Data," IZA Discussion Papers 7672, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  2. Julian di Giovanni & Andrei A. Levchenko & Isabelle Méjean, 2013. "Firms, destinations, and aggregate fluctuations," Economics Working Papers 1387, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra.
  3. Yongseok Shin & Roberto Fattal Jaef & Francisco Buera, 2011. "The Anatomy of a Credit Crunch," 2011 Meeting Papers 1283, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  4. Ying Fan & Kai-Uwe Kühn & Francine Lafontaine, 2013. "Financial Constraints and Moral Hazard: The Case of Franchising," CESifo Working Paper Series 4474, CESifo Group Munich.
  5. Paige Ouimet & Rebecca Zarutskie, 2013. "Who works for startups? The relation between firm age, employee age, and growth," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2013-75, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  6. Lucia Foster & Cheryl Grim & John Haltiwanger, 2013. "Reallocation In The Great Recession: Cleansing Or Not?," Working Papers 13-42, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.

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