Human Capital Convergence: Evidence from the Punjab
AbstractWhile the literature on economic growth provides mixed evidence on convergence across different countries and regions, a large number of studies point toward the widening income gap between rich and poor. In the development literature, a broader range of national welfare indicators beyond income per capita—health and education in particular—are considered important instruments for measuring progress in human development. This article examines education and other selective welfare indicators to determine if there has been unconditional and conditional convergence across the districts of Pakistani Punjab over the period 1961–2008. The study can be considered part of the growing literature that looks at growth theory in developing countries in the context of human capital. Thus far, few studies have examined human capital in the context of convergence, and Pakistan has not been studied in any depth up to now. The results of our empirical analysis show that over the last five decades, both unconditional and conditional convergence has taken place in literacy rates across Punjab, and that this has been accompanied by increased gender parity in educational enrolment levels and improved housing conditions.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Department of Economics, The Lahore School of Economics in its journal Lahore Journal of Economics.
Volume (Year): 17 (2012)
Issue (Month): 1 (Jan-June)
Contact details of provider:
Postal: Intersection Main Boulevard Phase VI DHA and Burki Road, Lahore
Phone: (92-42) 6560939
Web page: http://www.lahoreschoolofeconomics.edu.pk/EconomicsJournal/LJEIntro.aspx
More information through EDIRC
Human capital; unconditional convergence; conditional convergence; Pakistan.;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- I31 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare and Poverty - - - General Welfare
- R10 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - General
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Jeffrey D. Sachs & Nirupam Bajpai & Ananthi Ramiah, 2002. "Understanding Regional Economic Growth in India," Asian Economic Papers, MIT Press, vol. 1(3), pages 32-62.
- Robert J. Barro, 2012.
"Inflation and Economic Growth,"
CEMA Working Papers
568, China Economics and Management Academy, Central University of Finance and Economics.
- Jones, Charles I, 1997.
" Convergence Revisited,"
Journal of Economic Growth,
Springer, vol. 2(2), pages 131-53, July.
- Kenny, Charles, 2005. "Why Are We Worried About Income? Nearly Everything that Matters is Converging," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 33(1), pages 1-19, January.
- Randa Sab & Stephen C. Smith, 2001. "Human Capital Convergence: International Evidence," IMF Working Papers 01/32, International Monetary Fund.
- Ingram, Gregory, 1992. "Social indicators and productivity convergence in developing countries," Policy Research Working Paper Series 894, The World Bank.
- Ali Cheema & Lyyla Khalid & Manasa Patnam, 2008. "The Geography of Poverty: Evidence from the Punjab," Lahore Journal of Economics, Department of Economics, The Lahore School of Economics, vol. 13(Special E), pages 163-188, September.
- Mankiw, N Gregory & Romer, David & Weil, David N, 1992.
"A Contribution to the Empirics of Economic Growth,"
The Quarterly Journal of Economics,
MIT Press, vol. 107(2), pages 407-37, May.
- Button, Kenneth J & Pentecost, Eric J, 1995. "Testing for Convergence of the EU Regional Economies," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 33(4), pages 664-71, October.
- Tianlun Jian & Jeffrey D. Sachs & Andrew M. Warner, 1996. "Trends in Regional Inequality in China," NBER Working Papers 5412, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Robert J. Barro & Xavier Sala-i-Martin, 1991.
"Convergence across States and Regions,"
Brookings Papers on Economic Activity,
Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 22(1), pages 107-182.
- Maasoumi, Esfandiar & Wang, Le, 2006.
"Economic Reform, Growth and Convergence in China,"
Departmental Working Papers
0602, Southern Methodist University, Department of Economics.
- Somik V. Lall & Serdar Yilmaz, 2001. "Regional economic convergence: Do policy instruments make a difference?," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer, vol. 35(1), pages 153-166.
- Easterly, William, 1999. " Life during Growth," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 4(3), pages 239-76, September.
- Barro, Robert J & Sala-i-Martin, Xavier, 1992.
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 100(2), pages 223-51, April.
- Barro, Robert J. & Sala-i-Martin, Xavier, 1992. "Convergence," Scholarly Articles 3451299, Harvard University Department of Economics.
- Barro, R.J. & Sala-I-Martin, X., 1991. "Convergence," Papers 645, Yale - Economic Growth Center.
- Barro, R.J. & Sala-I-Martin, X., 1991. "Convergence Across States and Regions," Papers 629, Yale - Economic Growth Center.
- Randa Sab & Stephen C. Smith, 2002. "Human Capital Convergence: A Joint Estimation Approach," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 49(2), pages 3.
- Jian, Tianlun & Sachs, Jeffrey D. & Warner, Andrew M., 1996. "Trends in regional inequality in China," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 7(1), pages 1-21.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Shahid Salahuddin).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.