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Inefficiency and heterogeneity in Turkish banking: 1990-2000

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Author Info

  • Hulusi Inanoglu

    (Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, US Treasury Department, Washington, DC, USA)

  • Mahmoud A. El-Gamal

    (Department of Economics, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005, USA)

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    Abstract

    Recent studies have stressed the importance of privatization and openness to foreign competition for bank efficiency and economic growth. We study bank efficiency in Turkey, an emerging economy with great heterogeneity in bank types and ownership structures. Earlier studies of Turkish banking had three limitations: (i) excessive reliance on cost-function frontier analyses, wherein volume of loans is a measure of banking output; (ii) pooling all banks or imposing ad hoc heterogeneity assumptions; and (iii) lack of a comprehensive panel data set for proper analysis of productivity and heterogeneity. We use an estimation-classification procedure to find likelihood-driven classification of bank technologies in an 11-year panel. In addition, we augment traditional cost-frontier analysis with a labour-efficiency analysis. We conclude that state banks are not particularly inefficient overall, but that they do utilize labour inefficiently. This partially supports recent calls for privatization. We also conclude that special finance houses (or Islamic banks) utilize the same technology as conventional domestic banks, and do so relatively efficiently. This suggests that they do not cause harm to the financial system. Finally, we conclude that foreign banks utilize a different technology from domestic ones. This suggests that one should not overstate their value to the financial sector. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. in its journal Journal of Applied Econometrics.

    Volume (Year): 20 (2005)
    Issue (Month): 5 ()
    Pages: 641-664

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    Handle: RePEc:jae:japmet:v:20:y:2005:i:5:p:641-664

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    References

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    1. Aggarwal, Rajesh K & Yousef, Tarik, 2000. "Islamic Banks and Investment Financing," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 32(1), pages 93-120, February.
    2. Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopez-deSilanes & Andrei Shleifer, 2000. "Government Ownership of Banks," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1890, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
    3. Diewert, W E, 1974. "Functional Forms for Revenue and Factor Requirements Functions," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 15(1), pages 119-30, February.
    4. Schmidt, Peter & Sickles, Robin C, 1984. "Production Frontiers and Panel Data," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 2(4), pages 367-74, October.
    5. Allen N. Berger & Loretta J. Mester, 1997. "Inside the black box: what explains differences in the efficiencies of financial institutions?," Working Papers 97-1, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
    6. George E. Battese & Lennart Hjalmarsson & Almas Heshmati, 2000. "Efficiency of labour use in the Swedish banking industry: a stochastic frontier approach," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 25(4), pages 623-640.
    7. Emili Tortosa-Ausina, 2002. "Cost Efficiency and Product Mix Clusters across the Spanish Banking Industry," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer, vol. 20(2), pages 163-181, March.
    8. Kumbhakar, Subal C & Hjalmarsson, Lennart, 1995. "Labour-Use Efficiency in Swedish Social Insurance Offices," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 10(1), pages 33-47, Jan.-Marc.
    9. Wheelock, David C. & Wilson, Paul W., 2001. "New evidence on returns to scale and product mix among U.S. commercial banks," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 47(3), pages 653-674, June.
    10. Kajal Lahiri, 2005. "Analysis of Panel Data," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 87(4), pages 1093-1095.
    11. Mitchell, Karlyn & Onvural, Nur M, 1996. "Economies of Scale and Scope at Large Commercial Banks: Evidence from the Fourier Flexible Functional Form," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 28(2), pages 178-99, May.
    12. McAllister, Patrick H. & McManus, Douglas, 1993. "Resolving the scale efficiency puzzle in banking," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(2-3), pages 389-405, April.
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    Cited by:
    1. George Assaf, A. & Matousek, Roman & Tsionas, Efthymios G., 2013. "Turkish bank efficiency: Bayesian estimation with undesirable outputs," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(2), pages 506-517.
    2. Beck, Thorsten & Demirgüç-Kunt, Asli & Merrouche, Ouarda, 2013. "Islamic vs. conventional banking: Business model, efficiency and stability," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(2), pages 433-447.
    3. Assaf, A. George & Gillen, David & Barros, Carlos, 2012. "Performance assessment of UK airports: Evidence from a Bayesian dynamic frontier model," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 48(3), pages 603-615.
    4. Pavlos Almanidis, 2013. "Accounting for heterogeneous technologies in the banking industry: a time-varying stochastic frontier model with threshold effects," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 39(2), pages 191-205, April.

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