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Does it matter where patent citations come from? Inventor vs. examiner citations in European patents

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  • Criscuolo, Paola
  • Verspagen, Bart

Abstract

This paper addresses the question of whether patent citations are useful indicators of technology flows. We exploit the distinction between citations added by inventors and patent examiners. We use information from the search reports of European Patent Office patent examiners to construct our dataset of patenting activity in Europe and the US, and apply various econometric models to investigate what determines the probability that a citation is added by the inventor rather than the examiner. Contrary to previous work which uses US Patent and Trademark Office data, we find that geographical distance is a factor that strongly diminishes the probability of knowledge flows. We find other significant effects of such factors as cognitive distance, time and strategic factors on citing behaviour.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Research Policy.

Volume (Year): 37 (2008)
Issue (Month): 10 (December)
Pages: 1892-1908

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Handle: RePEc:eee:respol:v:37:y:2008:i:10:p:1892-1908

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Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/respol

Related research

Keywords: Patent citations Local knowledge spillovers;

References

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  1. Juan Alcácer & Michelle Gittelman, 2006. "Patent Citations as a Measure of Knowledge Flows: The Influence of Examiner Citations," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 88(4), pages 774-779, November.
  2. Verspagen, B. & Schoenmakers, W., 2002. "The Spatial Dimension of Patenting by Multinational Firms in Europe," Eindhoven Center for Innovation Studies (ECIS) working paper series 02.11, Eindhoven Center for Innovation Studies (ECIS).
  3. Hausman, Jerry A & Newey, Whitney K, 1995. "Nonparametric Estimation of Exact Consumers Surplus and Deadweight Loss," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 63(6), pages 1445-76, November.
  4. Akers, Noël J., 2000. "The referencing of prior art documents in European patents and applications," World Patent Information, Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 309-315, December.
  5. Stefano Breschi & Francesco Lissoni, 2001. "Knowledge spillovers and local innovation systems: a critical survey," LIUC Papers in Economics 84, Cattaneo University (LIUC).
  6. Adam B. Jaffe & Michael S. Fogarty & Bruce A. Banks, 1997. "Evidence from Patents and Patent Citations on the Impact of NASA and Other Federal Labs on Commercial Innovation," NBER Working Papers 6044, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Akers, Noel J., 1999. "The European Patent System: an introduction for patent searchers," World Patent Information, Elsevier, vol. 21(3), pages 135-163, September.
  8. Adam B. Jaffe & Manuel Trajtenberg & Michael S. Fogarty, 2000. "The Meaning of Patent Citations: Report on the NBER/Case-Western Reserve Survey of Patentees," NBER Working Papers 7631, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. Adam B. Jaffe & Manuel Trajtenberg & Rebecca Henderson, 1992. "Geographic Localization of Knowledge Spillovers as Evidenced by Patent Citations," NBER Working Papers 3993, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. Adam Jaffe & Manuel Trajtenberg, 1999. "International Knowledge Flows: Evidence From Patent Citations," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 8(1-2), pages 105-136.
  11. DUGUET Emmanuel & MacGARVIE Megan, 2004. "How Well Do Patent Citations Measure Flows of Technology? Evidence from French Innovation Surveys," Development and Comp Systems 0411018, EconWPA.
  12. Bottazzi, Laura & Peri, Giovanni, 2003. "Innovation and spillovers in regions: Evidence from European patent data," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 47(4), pages 687-710, August.
  13. Grid Thoma & Salvatore Torrisi, 2007. "Creating Powerful Indicators for Innovation Studies with Approximate Matching Algorithms. A test based on PATSTAT and Amadeus databases," KITeS Working Papers 211, KITeS, Centre for Knowledge, Internationalization and Technology Studies, Universita' Bocconi, Milano, Italy, revised Dec 2007.
  14. Collins, Peter & Wyatt, Suzanne, 1988. "Citations in patents to the basic research literature," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 17(2), pages 65-74, April.
  15. Stefano Breschi & Francesco Lissoni, 2004. "Knowledge networks from patent data: Methodological issues and research targets," KITeS Working Papers 150, KITeS, Centre for Knowledge, Internationalization and Technology Studies, Universita' Bocconi, Milano, Italy, revised Jan 2004.
  16. Maurseth, Per Botolf & Verspagen, Bart, 2002. " Knowledge Spillovers in Europe: A Patent Citations Analysis," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 104(4), pages 531-45, December.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Nemet, Gregory F., 2012. "Inter-technology knowledge spillovers for energy technologies," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(5), pages 1259-1270.
  2. Ugo Finardi, 2010. "Temporal and spatial relations between patents and scientific journal articles: the case of nanotechnologies," CERIS Working Paper 201007, Institute for Economic Research on Firms and Growth - Moncalieri (TO).
  3. Christ, Julian P., 2009. "The geography and co-location of European technology-specific co-inventorship networks," Violette Reihe Arbeitspapiere 31/2010, Promotionsschwerpunkt "Globalisierung und Beschaeftigung".
  4. Acosta, Manuel & Coronado, Daniel & Toribio, Mª Rosario, 2011. "The use of scientific knowledge by Spanish agrifood firms," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(4), pages 507-516, August.
  5. Schettino, Francesco & Sterlacchini, Alessandro & Venturini, Francesco, 2008. "Inventive Productivity and Patent Quality: Evidence from Italian Inventors," MPRA Paper 7765, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  6. Schoenmakers, Wilfred & Duysters, Geert, 2010. "The technological origins of radical inventions," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(8), pages 1051-1059, October.
  7. Jan Fagerberg & Maryann Feldman & Martin Srholec, 2012. "Technological Dynamics and Social Capability: Comparing U.S. States and European Nations," CERGE-EI Working Papers wp455, The Center for Economic Research and Graduate Education - Economic Institute, Prague.
  8. Nemet, Gregory F. & Johnson, Evan, 2012. "Do important inventions benefit from knowledge originating in other technological domains?," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 41(1), pages 190-200.
  9. Fei Yu & Yanrui Wu, 2013. "Patent Citations and Knowledge Spillovers: An Analysis of Chinese Patents Registered in the US," Economics Discussion / Working Papers 13-08, The University of Western Australia, Department of Economics.
  10. Della Malva, Antonio & Hussinger, Katrin, 2010. "Corporate science in the patent system: An analysis of the semiconductor technology," ZEW Discussion Papers 10-098, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  11. Bekkers, Rudi & Bongard, René & Nuvolari, Alessandro, 2011. "An empirical study on the determinants of essential patent claims in compatibility standards," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 40(7), pages 1001-1015, September.

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