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International offshoring of services: A parity study

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  • Bunyaratavej, Kraiwinee
  • Hahn, Eugene D.
  • Doh, Jonathan P.
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    Abstract

    Conventional wisdom suggests that firms engage in international offshoring of services primarily to reduce wage costs associated with a given service activity. Drawing on international business research on the costs of doing business abroad (CODBA), liability of foreignness (LOF), and institutional theory, we investigate the factors that contribute to the location choices for services offshoring activity, including wage differentials between the home and host countries. We find that consistent with a parity perspective but contrary to conventional expectations, a country is more likely to be a destination of services offshoring as the average wage of a country increases. We also find that education level and cultural similarity are significant drivers of offshoring location choices, again consistent with a parity perspective. This study contributes to debates about the economic impact of services offshoring by showing that firms locate offshoring facilities in destinations that are closer in wages to the home country and those with higher education levels and cultural similarity.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of International Management.

    Volume (Year): 13 (2007)
    Issue (Month): 1 (March)
    Pages: 7-21

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    Handle: RePEc:eee:intman:v:13:y:2007:i:1:p:7-21

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    Related research

    Keywords: Services Offshoring Outsourcing Government policy Empirical;

    References

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    Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
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    1. Jonathan P. Doh, 2005. "Offshore Outsourcing: Implications for International Business and Strategic Management Theory and Practice," Journal of Management Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 42(3), pages 695-704, 05.
    2. Diana Farrell, 2005. "Offshoring: Value Creation through Economic Change," Journal of Management Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 42(3), pages 675-683, 05.
    3. Luo, Yadong & Shenkar, Oded & Nyaw, Mee-Kau, 2002. "Mitigating liabilities of foreignness: Defensive versus offensive approaches," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 8(3), pages 283-300.
    4. Graf, Michael & Mudambi, Susan M., 2005. "The outsourcing of IT-enabled business processes: A conceptual model of the location decision," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 11(2), pages 253-268, June.
    5. Sethi, Deepak & Guisinger, Stephen, 2002. "Liability of foreignness to competitive advantage: How multinational enterprises cope with the international business environment," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 8(3), pages 223-240.
    6. Zaheer, Srilata, 2002. "The liability of foreignness, redux: a commentary," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 8(3), pages 351-358.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:
    1. Jensen, Peter D. Ørberg, 2009. "A learning perspective on the offshoring of advanced services," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 15(2), pages 181-193, June.
    2. Martin Falk, 2012. "Determinants of Greenfield Investment in Knowledge Intensive Business Services," FIW Research Reports series IV-002, FIW.
    3. Julien Gooris & Carine Peeters, 2013. "Home-Host Country Distance in Offshore Governance Chocies," Working Papers ECARES ECARES 2013-13, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    4. Julien Gooris & Carine Peeters, 2012. "Home-Host Country Distance and Governance Choices in Service Offshoring," Working Papers ECARES ECARES 2012-007, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    5. Kedia, Ben L. & Mukherjee, Debmalya, 2009. "Understanding offshoring: A research framework based on disintegration, location and externalization advantages," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 44(3), pages 250-261, July.
    6. Grosse, Robert & Fonseca, Alejandro, 2012. "Learning Through Imports in the Internationalization Process," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 366-378.
    7. Schmeisser, Bjoern, 2013. "A Systematic Review of Literature on Offshoring of Value Chain Activities," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 19(4), pages 390-406.
    8. Mariana Almeida & Raquel Meneses, 2013. "In The Shadow Of Offshoring: An Exploratory Study Of The Expectations Of Providers," Global Economic Observer, "Nicolae Titulescu" University of Bucharest, Faculty of Economic Sciences;Institute for World Economy of the Romanian Academy, vol. 1(1), pages 160-173, May.
    9. Martinez-Noya, Andrea & Garcia-Canal, Esteban & Guillen, Mauro F., 2012. "International R&D service outsourcing by technology-intensive firms: Whether and where?," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 18-37.
    10. Marie CORIS (GREThA-GRES), 2008. "The coordination issues of relocations: How proximity still matters in location of software development activities\r\n," Cahiers du GRES 2008-03, Groupement de Recherches Economiques et Sociales.
    11. repec:ntu:ntugeo:vol1-iss1s-13-160 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. Martínez-Noya, Andrea & García-Canal, Esteban, 2011. "Technological capabilities and the decision to outsource/outsource offshore R&D services," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 20(3), pages 264-277, June.
    13. Reuter, Ute & Burr, Wolfgang, 2011. "International market assessment: Site selection in service firms," Research Papers on Innovation, Services and Technology 2/2011, University of Stuttgart, Institute of Business Administration, Department I - Institute of Research & Development and Innovation Management.
    14. Hätönen, Jussi, 2009. "Making the locational choice: A case approach to the development of a theory of offshore outsourcing and internationalization," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 61-76, March.
    15. Ceci, Federica & Prencipe, Andrea, 2013. "Does Distance Hinder Coordination? Identifying and Bridging Boundaries of Offshored Work," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 19(4), pages 324-332.
    16. repec:wsr:ecbook:2010:i:iv-002 is not listed on IDEAS
    17. Hätönen, Jussi & Eriksson, Taina, 2009. "30+Â years of research and practice of outsourcing - Exploring the past and anticipating the future," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 15(2), pages 142-155, June.
    18. Florence Duvivier & Carine Peeters, 2011. "The use of expatriates in the offshoring of services - Framework and research propositions," Working Papers CEB 11-059, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    19. Denk, Nikola & Kaufmann, Lutz & Roesch, Jan-Frederik, 2012. "Liabilities of Foreignness Revisited: A Review of Contemporary Studies and Recommendations for Future Research," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 322-334.
    20. Chen, Jihong & McQueen, Robert J. & Sun, Peter Y.T., 2013. "Knowledge Transfer and Knowledge Building at Offshored Technical Support Centers," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 19(4), pages 362-376.
    21. Bunyaratavej, Kraiwinee & Hahn, Eugene D. & Doh, Jonathan P., 2008. "Multinational investment and host country development: Location efficiencies for services offshoring," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 43(2), pages 227-242, March.
    22. Tate, Wendy L. & Ellram, Lisa M. & Bals, Lydia & Hartmann, Evi, 2009. "Offshore outsourcing of services: An evolutionary perspective," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 120(2), pages 512-524, August.
    23. Roza, Marja & Van den Bosch, Frans A.J. & Volberda, Henk W., 2011. "Offshoring strategy: Motives, functions, locations, and governance modes of small, medium-sized and large firms," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 20(3), pages 314-323, June.

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