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The Evolution of Elderly Poverty in Canada

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  • Kevin Milligan

Abstract

In this article, I extend the analysis of head-count measures of income and consumption poverty to all currently available microdata. Along with standard measures, I implement a relative poverty indicator using the well-being of working age families as a benchmark. I find that poverty among elderly families decreased sharply through the 1970s and 1980s. In the 1990s, relative measures of income poverty increased because non-elderly incomes have risen more quickly than elderly incomes. Since the 1980s, a sharp spike in income poverty has emerged between the ages of 55 and 64, with no counterpart in the consumption data.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by University of Toronto Press in its journal Canadian Public Policy.

Volume (Year): 34 (2008)
Issue (Month): s1 (November)
Pages: 79-94

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Handle: RePEc:cpp:issued:v:34:y:2008:i:s1:p:79-94

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References

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  1. Kevin Milligan, 2004. "Life-Cycle Asset Accumulation and Allocation in Canada," NBER Working Papers 10860, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Thomas Crossley & Lori Curtis, 2003. "Child Poverty in Canada," Department of Economics Working Papers 2003-06, McMaster University.
  3. Lars Osberg, 2001. "Poverty Among Senior Citizens: A Canadian Success Story," The State of Economics in Canada: Festschrift in Honour of David Slater, in: Patrick Grady & Andrew Sharpe (ed.), The State of Economics in Canada: Festschrift in Honour of David Slater, pages 151-181 Centre for the Study of Living Standards.
  4. Marc Frenette & David A. Green & Kevin Milligan, 2007. "The tale of the tails: Canadian income inequality in the 1980s and 1990s," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 40(3), pages 734-764, August.
  5. Krishna Pendakur, 2001. "Consumption Poverty in Canada, 1969 to 1998," Canadian Public Policy, University of Toronto Press, vol. 27(2), pages 125-149, June.
  6. Johnson, Paul & Stears, Gary, 1998. "Why Are Older Pensioners Poorer?," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 60(3), pages 271-90, August.
  7. Thomas F. Crossley & Krishna Pendakur, 2002. "Consumption Inequality," Department of Economics Working Papers 2002-09, McMaster University.
  8. Agneta Stark & Nancy Folbre & Lois Shaw & Timothy Smeeding & Susanna Sandstrom & Lois Shaw & Sunhwa Lee & Kyunghee Chung, 2005. "Poverty And Income Maintenance In Old Age: A Cross-National View Of Low Income Older Women / Growing Old In The Us: Gender And Income Adequacy / Gender And Aging In South Korea," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 11(2), pages 163-197.
  9. Michael Baker & Jonathan Gruber & Kevin S. Milligan, 2009. "Retirement Income Security and Well-Being in Canada," NBER Working Papers 14667, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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Cited by:
  1. McDonald, James Ted & Worswick, Christopher, 2013. "Retirement Incomes, Labour Supply and Co-residency Decisions of Older Immigrants in Canada: 1991-2006," CLSSRN working papers clsrn_admin-2013-23, Vancouver School of Economics, revised 29 Apr 2013.
  2. Michael R. Veall, 2007. "Which Canadian Seniors Are Below the Low-Income Measure?," Quantitative Studies in Economics and Population Research Reports 414, McMaster University.
  3. Kevin S. Milligan, 2012. "How is Economic Hardship Avoided by Those Retiring Before the Social Security Entitlement Age?," NBER Working Papers 18051, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Anders, Sven, 2010. "Ageing And Consumption – The Impact Of Demographic Change On Food Expenditure Patterns," 115th Joint EAAE/AAEA Seminar, September 15-17, 2010, Freising-Weihenstephan, Germany 116442, European Association of Agricultural Economists & Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
  5. Milligan, Kevin, 2013. "Employer-provided pensions, incomes, and hardship in early transitions to retirement," CLSSRN working papers clsrn_admin-2013-24, Vancouver School of Economics, revised 29 Apr 2013.
  6. Michael R. Veall, 2008. "Canadian Seniors and the Low Income Measure," Canadian Public Policy, University of Toronto Press, vol. 34(s1), pages 47-58, November.
  7. Mike Brewer & Cormac O'Dea, 2012. "Measuring living standards with income and consumption: evidence from the UK," IFS Working Papers W12/12, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
  8. Kees Goudswaard & Olaf van Vliet & Jim Been & Koen Caminada, 2012. "Pensions and Income Inequality in Old Age," CESifo DICE Report, Ifo Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 10(4), pages 21-26, December.
  9. Van Vliet, Olaf & Been, Jim & Caminada, Koen & Goudswaard, Kees, 2011. "Pension reform and income inequality among the elderly in 15 European countries," MPRA Paper 32940, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  10. repec:ese:iserwp:2012-05 is not listed on IDEAS

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